THE EFFECTS PARENTAL PERMISSIVENESS ON ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION WITH REGARD TO POSITIVE PARENTING AND GENDER
Keywords:adolescents, depression, negative and positive parenting, parental permissiveness
Parental permissiveness entails low levels of behavioral control evident in easy caving before children’s demands, pleads, persuasions or resistance to parental demands, as well as allowing a a higher level of freedom to a child or adolescent. Studies examining the effects of parental permissiveness are not consistent, and there are studies suggesting that permissiveness can have both positive and negative effects depending on its combination with positive (emotional warmth and acceptance, positive discipline and control) or negative (refection and negative discipline) parenting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental permissiveness on adolescent depression depending on the level of negative and positive parenting. A total of 482 high school students participated in the study, out of which 58.09% were girls. The participants completed Questionnaire on parental behavior and Child depression scale. The effects of interactions of permissiveness with negative and positive parenting of both mother and father were tested, separately for girls and boys. The results have shown positive parenting moderated the effects of parental permissiveness on depression in boys, but not girls. In boy, if parents exhibit low levels of positive parenting, there were no significant effects of permissiveness on depression, but if parents exhibit moderate to high levels of positive parenting, higher permissiveness predicted higher depression. The results suggest that parental permissiveness decreases the protective effects of positive parenting, at least in boys. Results also suggest that, in protecting youth mental health, it is useful to direct efforts at educating and counseling parents in order to prevent adverse effects of their permissiveness.
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