UČINCI POPUSTLJIVOSTI RODITELJA NA DEPRESIVNOST ADOLESCENATA U ODNOSU NA POZITIVNO RODITELJSTVO I SPOL

  • Ana Kurtović Odsjek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku
Ključne reči: adolescenti, depresivnost, negativno i pozitivno roditeljstvo, popustljivost roditelja

Apstrakt

Popustljivost roditelja podrazumijeva prenizak stupanj bihevioralne kontrole koje se najviše očituje u lakom popuštanju na djetetove zahtjeve, molbe, nagovaranja ili protivljenja zahtjevima, kao i višu razinu autonomije i slobode. Istraživanja učinaka roditeljske popustljivosti nisu jednoznačna i postoje istraživanja koja sugeriraju da popustljivost roditelja može imati pozitivne i negativne učinke u ovisnosti o tome koristi li se u kombinaciji s pozivnim roditeljstvom (emocionalna toplina i prihvaćanje, vodstvo i nadzor) ili negativnim roditeljstvom (odbacivanje, grubo kažnjavanje i psihološka kontrola). Cilj rada bio je provjeriti učinke popustljivosti roditelja na depresivnost adolescenata u ovisnosti o razinama negativnog i pozitivnog roditeljstva, pri čemu je uzet u obzir spol roditelja i djeteta. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 482 učenika svih razreda srednje škole, od čega 58.09% djevojaka. Sudionici su ispunili Upitnik roditeljskih postupaka zasebno za majku i oca, te Skalu depresivnosti za djecu. Rezultati testiranja učinaka interakcija popustljivosti s negativnim, odnosno pozitivnim roditeljstvom majke i oca pokazali su da pozitivno roditeljstvo moderira učinke popustljivosti na depresivnost, ali samo kod mladića, dok kod djevojaka popustljivost samostalno niti u interakciji s pozitivnim ili negativnim roditeljstvom nema značajnih učinaka. Naime, pokazalo se da, ako roditelji ispoljavaju pozitivno roditeljstvo u niskom stupnju, popustljivost nema značajnih učinaka, ali kod srednjih i visokih razina pozivnog roditeljstva, viša popustljivost roditelja ima značajne pozitivne učinke na depresivnost mladića. Rezultati sugeriraju da popustljivost umanjuje zaštitne učinke pozitivnog roditeljstva majke i oca, barem kod mladića. Rezultati, također, sugeriraju da je, za zaštitu mentalnog zdravlja mladih, korisno usmjeriti napore prema edukaciji i savjetovanju roditelja radi sprječavanja nepovoljnih učinaka njihove popustljivosti.

Reference

Alizadeh, S., Abu Talib, M. B., Abdullah, R., & Mansor, M. (2011). Relationship between parenting style and children’s behavior problems. Asian Social Science, 7(12), 195200. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n12p195

Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Smith, J. M., Gibb., B. E., & Neeren, A. M. (2006). Role of parenting and maltreatment histories in unipolar and bipolar disorders: Mediation by cognitive vulnerability to depression. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 23–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-006-0002-4

Alloy, L. B., Whitehouse, W. G., Lapkin, J. B., Abramson, L. Y., Hogan, M. E., Rose, D. T., Robinson, M. S., & Kim, R. S. (2000). The Temple – Winsconsin cognitive vulnerability to depression project: Lifetime history of axix I psychopathology in individuals at high and low risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 3, 403–418. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.403

Barton, A. L., & Hirsch, J. K. (2016). Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement. Journal of American College Health, 64(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2015.1060597

Barton, A. L., & Kirtley, M. S. (2011). Gender differences in the relationships among parenting styles and college student mental health. Journal of American College Health, 60(1), 2126. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2011.555933

Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.128

Baumrind, D. (1993). The average expectable environment is not good enough: A response to Scarr. Child Development, 3, 12991317. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131536

Bernat, D. H., August, G. J., Hektner, J. M., & Bloomquist, M. L. (2007). The Early Risers preventive intervention: testing for six-year outcomes and mediational processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 605–617. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9116-5

Bhatia, S. K., & Bhatia, S. C. (2007). Childhood and adolescent depression. American Academy of Family Psychiatrics, 35, 22–35. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_5_19

Campana, K. L., Henderson, S., Stolberg, A. L., & Schum, L. (2008). Paired maternal and paternal parenting styles, child custody and children's emotional adjustment to divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 48(34), 120. https://doi.org/10.1300/J087v48n03_01

Collishaw, S. (2009). Trends in adolescent depression: a review of the evidence. In W. Yule (Ed.), Depression in Childhood and Adolescence: The Way Forward (pp. 7–18). Association of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Dwairy, M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian–Arab adolescents in Israel. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(2), 233–252. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461504043566.

Đorđević, M. (2008). Kriticizam roditelja, agresivnost adolescenata i sklonost ka zloupotrebi alkohola. U J. Todorović, S. Vidanović i V. Anđelković (Ur.), Mladi i porodica - Zbornik radova sa III Konferencije Dani primenjene psihologije (str. 77–93). Filozofski fakultet u Nišu.

Eberhart, N. E., & Hammen, C. L. (2006). Interpersonal predictors of onset of depression during transition to adulthood. Personal Relationships, 13, 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2006.00113.x

Eun, J. D., Paksarian, D., He, J. P., & Ries Merikangas, K. (2018). Parenting style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 53(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1435-4

Fagot, B. I. (1995). Parenting boys and girls. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (pp. 91118). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Galambos, N. L., Leadbeater, B. J., & Barker, E. T. (2004). Gender differences in and risk factors for depression in adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1, 16–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250344000235

Gibb, B. E., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2004). Emotional maltreatment from parents, verbal peer victimization, and cognitive vulnerability to depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COTR.0000016927.18027.c2

Gillespie, N. A., Zhu, G., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., & Martin, N. G. (2003). Directions of causation modeling between cross-sectional measures of parenting and psychological distress in female twins. Behavior Genetics, 4, 383–401. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01026.x

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. The Guilford Press

Helsel, W. J., & Matson, J. L. (1984). The assessment of depression in children: The internal structure of the child depression inventory (CDI). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22(3), 289–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(84)90009-3

Hops, H. (1992). Parental depression and child behavior problems: Implications for behavioral family intervention. Behavior Change, 9, 126–138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0813483900006276

Hosley, C. A., & Montemayor, R. (1997). Fathers and adolescents. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 162178). John Wiley.

Hyde, J. S., Mezulis, A. H., & Abramson, L. Y. (2008). The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender differences in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2, 291–313. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.291.

Ingram, R. E., & Ritter, J. (2000). Vulnerability to depression: Cognitive reactivity and parental bonding in high-risk individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 588–596. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.4.588

Jovanović, A., Todorović, J. i Dimitrijević, B. (2008). Doživljaj odnosa sa roditeljima, agresivnost i aleksitimija mladih sa problemima i poremećajima u ponašanju. U J. Todorović, S. Vidanović i V. Anđelković (Ur.), Mladi i porodica - Zbornik radova sa III Konferencije Dani primenjene psihologije (str. 95123). Filozofski fakultet u Nišu.

Kaya, A. (2007). Socio-metric status, depression, and locus of control among Turkish early adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 1405–1414. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2007.35.10.1405

Kopala-Sibley, D. C., Jelinek, C., Kessel, E., Frost, A., Allmann, A. E. S., & Klein, D. N. (2017). Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles. Development and Psychopathology, 29(4), 1469–1482. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579417000396

Kuehner, C. (2003). Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 108, 183–174. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.00204.x

Kurtović, A. i Marčinko, I. (2010). Odnos odgojnog stila roditelja sa strategijama suočavanja i depresivnošću kod adolescenata. Klinička psihologija, 3(12), 1943.

Kurtović, A. (2012). Uloga obitelji u depresivnosti adolescenata. Klinička psihologija, 5(12), 37–58.

Lin, T. E., & Lian, T. C. (2011). Relationship between perceived parenting styles and coping capability among Malaysian secondary school students. International Conference on Social Science and Humanity Proceedings, 5, 2024.

Liu, Y. (2006). Paternal/maternal attachment, peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms. Adolescence, 164, 705–722.

Logan, D. E., Claar, R. L., Guite, J. W., Kashikar-Zuck, S., Lynch-Jordan, A., Palermo, T. M., Wilson, A. C., & Zhou, C. (2013). Factor structure of the children's depression inventory in a multisite sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain, 14(7), 689698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2013.01.777.

Marcotte, D., Fortin, L., Potvin, P., & Papillon, M. (2006). Gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence: Role of gender-typed characteristics, self-esteem, body- image, stressful life events and pubertal status. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1, 25–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/106342660201000104

McGinn, L. K., Cukor, D., & Sanderson, W. C. (2005). The relationship between parenting style, cognitive style, and anxiety and depression: Does increased early adversity influence symptom severity through the mediating role of cognitive style. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 219–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-3166-1

McKinney, C., & Renk, K. (2008). Differential parenting between mothers and fathers: Implications for late adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 29(6), 806827. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X07311222

Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2006). College drinking behaviors: Mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(2), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.20.2.117

Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2009). Mediational links among parenting styles, perceptions of parental confidence, self-esteem, and depression on alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 215226. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2009.70.215

Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Posterino, M., Carlin, J. B., & Wolfe, R. (2001). Parental "affectionless control" in adolescent depressive disorder. Social Psychiatry, 36, 475–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001270170011

Pavićević, M. i Stojijković, S. (2016). Percipirani vaspitni stavovi roditelja kao prediktori interpersonalne orijentacije studenata. Primenjena psihologija, 9(3), 293–311. https://doi.org/10.19090/pp.2016.3.293-311

Pelemiš, S. (2017). Vaspitni stil roditelja kao faktor opšteg uspeha učenika. Pedagoška stvarnost, 63(1). 27–40. https://doi.org/10.19090/ps.2017.1.27-40

Piko, B. F., & Balazs, M. A (2012). Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 149–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0246-0

Pittman, L. D., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (2001). African American adolescent girls in impoverished communities: Parenting style and adolescent outcomes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(2), 199–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00010

Richaud De Minzi, M. C. (2006). Loneliness and depression in middle to late childhood: The relationship to attachment and parental styles. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 2, 189–210. https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.167.2.189-210

Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., Huurne, M., Bamelis, L., & Muris, P. (2006). On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behavior, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3, 331–344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9025-1

Schek, D. T. L. (2008). Perceived parental control and parent-child relational qualities in early adolescents in Hong Kong: Parent gender, child gender, and grade differences. Sex Roles, 58, 666–681. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-019-09642-6

Slavin, L. A., & Rainer, K. L. (1990). Gender differences in emotional support and depressive symptoms among adolescents: A prospective analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 407–421. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00938115

Susheela (2018). A study of the relationship between depression and parenting styles among adolescents. International Journal of Engineering Development and Research (IJEDR), 6(1), 4244.

Todorović, J. A. (2004). Vaspitni stilovi u porodici i stabilnost samopoštovanja adolescenata. Psihologija, 37(2), 183–193. https://doi.org/10.2298/PSI0402183T

Tošić, M., Dimitrijević, N. i Todorović, D. (2008). Činioci značajni za samopoštovanje adolescenata. U J. Todorović, S. Vidanović i V. Anđelković (Ur.), Mladi i porodica - Zbornik radova sa III Konferencije Dani primenjene psihologije (str. 195212). Filozofski fakultet u Nišu.

Vučenović, D., Hajncl, LJ. i Mavar, M. (2015). Percepcija roditeljskog stila odgoja i depresivnost adolescenata s obzirom na spol i dob. Klinička psihologija, 8(1), 81–92.

Vulić-Prtorić, A. (2002). Obiteljske interakcije i psihopatološki simptomi u djece i adolescenata. Suvremena psihologija, 5(1), 31–51.

Wischerth, G. A., Mulvaney, M. K., Brackett, M. A., & Perkins, D. (2016) The adverse influence of permissive parenting on personal growth and the mediating role of emotional intelligence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 177(5), 185189. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1224223

Yap, M. B. H., Pilkington, P. D., Ryan, S. M., & Jorm, A. F. (2015). Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 8–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.11.007

Zhou, Q., Sandler, I. N., Millsap, R. E., Wolchik, S. A., & Dawson-McClure, S. R. (2008). Mother–child relationship quality and effective discipline as mediators of the 6-year effects of the New Beginnings Program for children from divorced families. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 579–594. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.579

Živčić, I. (1992). Prikaz skale depresivnosti za djecu. Godišnjak Zavoda za psihologiju, 1, 173-179.
Objavljeno
01. 06. 2020.
Broj časopisa
Sekcija
Članci