• Beata Grabovac Hungarian Language Teacher Training Faculty in Subotica, Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Novi Sad
  • Anita Deák Institute of Psychology, Department of General and Evolutionary Psychology, University of Pécs



emotional stimuli, Hungarian language, IAPS, pic- tures, Serbian language


The purpose of this study was to extend the International Affective Picture System to Serbia, which is worldwide workrelated to the ratings. A total of 158 students participated in the study, which in- cluded ninety Hungarian students and sixty-eight Serbian students. The participants were required to rate sixty pictures from the IAPS database on the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance. One of our main aims was to compare the results from Serbia and the North American ratings. We found a signifi group difference on the dimension of arousal between the North American and the Hungarian group. Additionally, we found differences between the two groups from Serbia: in Serbian and Hungarian students, as majority and minority groups, there were differences on a dimen- sion arousal. The differences that were statistically signifi in relation to the ratings from Hungary were the ones between the Hungarian group from Hungary and the North American ratings, as well as between the Hungarian group from Hungary and our Hun- garian group, on the dominance dimension. Sex differences were also found signifi regarding arousal and dominance. These differences were in line with other cross-cultural comparisons. We also correlated the results from the USA, Hungary, Bosnia, and our two subgroups, and we found the highest correlations between the two groups from Serbia. Based on the overall results we could conclude that the affective evaluations were similar in Serbia and in other countries, and that the IAPS database could be used for the research purposes in Serbia.


Metrics Loading ...


Alčaković, S., Orlić, A., & Đurić, V. (2018). Emotional context and effectiveness of TV advertising. Primenjena psihologija, 11(2), 155–170. doi:10.19090/ pp.2018.2.155-170

Barrett, L. F. (1998). Discrete emotions or dimensions? The role of Va- lence focus and Arousal focus. Cognition & Emotion, 12(4), 579–599. doi:10.1080/026999398379574

Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring Emotion: The Self–Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Ex- perimental Psychiatry, 25(1), 49–59. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(94)90063-9

Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2000). Affective reactions to acoustic stimuli. Psycho- physiology, 37(2), 204–215. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(94)90063-9

Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007). The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in the study of emotion and attention. In J. A. Coan & J. J. B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessement (pp. 29–46.). New York: Ox- ford University Press.

Brosch, T., Pourtois, G., & Sander, D. (2010). The perception and categorization of emotional stimuli: A review. Cognition and Emotion, 24(3), 377–400. doi:10.1080/02699930902975754

Deák, A. (2011). Érzelmek, viselkedés és az emberi agy: Az International Affective Picture System (IAPS) magyar adaptációja és alkalmazásának lehetőségei. [Emotions, behavior and the human brain: the Hungarian adaptation of the International Affective Picture System and its possible usability] (Unpub- lished doctoral disertation). Hungary: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Pécs.

Deák, A., Csenki, L., & Révész, G. (2010). Hungarian ratings for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS): A cross–cultural comparison. Empirical Text and Culture Research, 4, 90–101.

Drače, S., Efendić, E., Kusturica, M., & Landžo, L. (2013). Cross–cultural validation of the “International Affective Picture System” (IAPS) on a sample from Bos- nia and Herzegovina. Psihologija, 46(1), 17–26. doi:10.2298/psi1301017d

Dufey, M., Fernández, A., & Mayol, R. (2011). Adding support to cross–cultural emo- tional assessment: Validation of the International Affective Picture System in a Chilean sample. Universitas Psychologica, 10(2), 521–533. doi:10.11144/ javeriana.upsy10-2.asce

Ebner, N., Riediger, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2010). FACES – A database of facial expressions in young, middle–aged, and older women and men: Development and validation. Behavior Research Methods, 42 (1), 351–362. doi:10.3758/ brm.42.1.351

Fan, L., Xu, Q., Wang, X., Xu, F., Yang, Y., & Lu, Z. (2018). The automatic activation of emotion words measured using the emotional face–word Stroop task in late Chinese–English bilinguals. Cognition and Emotion, 32(2), 315–324. doi:10.1 080/02699931.2017.1303451

Gilman, T. L., Shaheen, R., Nylocks, K. M., Halachoff, D., Chapman, J., Flynn, J. J., Matt, L., M., & Coifman, K. G. (2017). A film set for the elicitation of emotion in research: A comprehensive catalog derived from four decades of investi- gation. Behavior Research Methods, 49(6), 2061–2082. doi:10.3758/s13428- 016-0842-x

Gong, X., Wong, N., & Wang, D. (2018). Are Gender Differences in Emotion Cul- turally Universal? Comparison of Emotional Intensity Between Chinese and German Samples. Journal of Cross–Cultural Psychology, 49 (6), 1–13. doi:10.1177/0022022118768434

Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well–being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362. doi:10.1037/0022- 3514.85.2.348

Grühn, D., & Scheibe, S. (2008). Age–related differences in Valence and Arousal ratings of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Do ratings become more extreme with age? Behavior Research Methods, 40(2), 512–521. doi:10.3758/brm.40.2.512

Kelberer, L. J., Kraines, M. A., & Wells, T. T. (2018). Optimism, hope, and attention for emotional stimuli. Personality and Individual Differences, 124, 84–90. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.003

Kurdi, B., Lozano, S., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). Introducing the open affective stand- ardized image set (OASIS). Behavior Research Methods, 49(2), 457–470. doi:10.3758/s13428-016-0715-3

Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2005). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A–6, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Lasaitis, C., Ribeiro, R. L., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2008). Brazilian norms for the Interna- tional Affective Picture System (IAPS): comparison of the affective ratings for new stimuli between Brazilian and North–American subjects. Jornal Brasilei- ro de Psiquiatria, 57(4), 270–275. doi:10.1590/s0047-20852008000400008

Lohani, M., Gupta, R., & Srinivasan, N. (2013). Cross–cultural evaluation of the In- ternational Affective Picture System on an Indian sample. Psychological Stud- ies, 58(3), 233–241. doi:10.1007/s12646-013-0196-8

Moltó, J., Montañés, S., Poy, R., Segarra, P., Pastor, M. C., Tormo, M. P., & Vila, J. (1999). Un nuevo método para el estudio experimental de las emociones: El International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Adaptación española [A new method for the experimental study of emotions: The International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Spanish adaptation]. Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada,52 (1), 55–87.

Orlić, A., M. (2012). Individualne razlike u obradi emocionalno obojenog materijala[Individual differences in processing Affective Material](Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Serbia: Faculty of Philosophy, University in Belgrade.

Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, H. P. (1957). The Measurement of Meaning. USA, Urbana: Universityof Illinois Press.

Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psy- chological Review, 110(1), 145–172. doi:10.1037//0033-295x.110.1.145 Schwager, S., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Counter–regulation triggered by emotions: Positive/negative affective states elicit opposite Valence biases in af- fective processing. Cognition & Emotion, 27(5), 839–855. doi:10.1080/0269 9931.2012.750599

Silva, J. R. (2011). International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in Chile: A cross- cultural adaptation and validation study. Terapia Psicológica, 29(2), 251–258. doi:10.4067/s0718-48082011000200012

Soares, A. P., Pinheiro, A. P., Costa, A., Frade, C. S., Comesaña, M., & Pureza, R. (2015). Adaptation of the international affective picture system (IAPS) for European Portuguese. Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), 1159–1177. doi:10.3758/ s13428-014-0535-2

Uhrig, M. K., Trautmann, N., Baumgärtner, U., Treede, R. D., Henrich, F., Hiller, W., & Marschall, S. (2016). Emotion elicitation: A comparison of pictures and films. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 180, 1–12. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00180

Verschuere, B., Crombez, G., & Koster, E. (2001). The International Affective Pic- ture System: A Flemish validation study. Psychologica Belgica, 41(4), 205– 217. doi:10.5334/pb-46-1-2-99



How to Cite




Regular issues