• Gabrijela Vrdoljak Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
  • Izabela Lovaković Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
  • Ana Kurtović Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek



goal orientations, personality traits, school achieve- ment


The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of pre- dicting school achievement through personality traits and goal orientations. A total of 222 second, third and fourth grade high school students participated in the study (65.8% girls). The Big Five Inventory was used to measure the five personality traits (Ex- traversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness to experience) and the Components of Self‒Regulated Learning was used for measuring three goal orientations: learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation and work‒avoid- ance goal orientation. As a measure of school achievement, the following was gathered: students’ previous grade point average, grade in Croatian language, mathematics, and first foreign lan- guage. The results of the hierarchical regression analyses sug- gested that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism are positive pre- dictors of GPA and the grade in the Croatian language. Further- more, Openness is a positive predictor, while Extraversion is a negative predictor of the grade in the first foreign language. Also, results have shown that learning goal orientation is a positive predictor of the grade in Croatian language. Finally, results have shown that learning goal orientation mediated the relationship between Conscientiousness and the grade in Croatian language.


Metrics Loading ...


Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261‒271. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.84.3.261
Babarović, T., Burušić, J. i Šakić, M. (2009). Uspješnost predviđanja obra- zovnih dostignuća učenika osnovnih škola Republike Hrvatske. Društvena istraživanja, 4–5, 673‒695.
Bidjerano, T., & Yun Dai, D. (2007). The relationship between the big‒five model of personality and self‒regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 69‒81. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2007.02.001
Booth, P., & Winzar, H. (1993). Personality biases of accounting students: Some implications for learning style preferences. Accounting and Finance, 33, 109‒120. doi:10.1111/j.1467‒629X.1993.tb00322.x
Bratko, D., Chamorro‒Premuzic, T., & Saks, Z. (2006). Personality and school performance: Incremental validity of self‒ and peer‒ratings over intelli- gence. Personality and Individual Differences 41, 131‒142. doi:10.1016/j. paid.2005.12.015
Chamorro‒Premuzic, T., & Furham, A. (2003a). Personality Traits and Academ- ic Examination Performance. European Journal of Personality, 17, 237‒250. doi:10.1002/per.473
Chamorro‒Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2003b). Personality predicts academic performance: Evidence from two longitudinal university samples. Journal of Research in Psychology, 37, 319–338. doi:10.1016/S0092‒6566(02)00578‒0 Chamorro‒Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2008). Personality, intelligence and ap- proaches to learning as predictors of academic performance. Personality and
Individual Differences, 44, 1596–1603. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.003 Chamorro‒Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2009). Mainly Openness: The relation-
ship between the Big Five personality traits and learning approaches. Learn- ing and Individual Differences 19, 524–529. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.06.004 Chen, G., & Mathieu, J. E. (2008). Goal orientation dispositions and performance trajectories: The roles of supplementary and complementary situational in- ducements. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106(1),
21‒38. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.11.001
Cury, F., Elliot, A. J., Da Fonseca, D., & Moller, A. C. (2006). The social‒cogni- tive model of achievement motivation and the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 666‒679. doi:10.1037/0022‒3514.90.4.666
Dale, L., & Harrison, D. (2017). How the Big Five personality traits in CPSQ increase its potential to predict academic and work outcomes. Cambridge: Cambridge Assessment.
De Raad, B., & Schouwenburg, H. C. (1996). Personality in learning and educa- tion: A review. European Journal of Personality, 10, 303‒336. doi:10.1002/ (sici)1099‒0984(199612)10:5<303::aid‒per262>;2‒u
Dompnier, B., Darnon, C., & Butera, F. (2013). When performance‒approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: A social value approach. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52, 587‒596. doi:10.1111/bjso.12025
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and Avoidance Motivation and Achivement Goals.
Educational Psycologyst, 34, 169‒189. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3 Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoid-
ance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218‒232. doi:10.1037/0022‒3514.72.1.218
Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. (1999). Achievement Goals, Study Strate- gies, and Exam Performance: A Mediational Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 549‒563. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.91.3.549
Elliot, A., J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Frame- work. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501‒519. doi:10.1037/0022‒3514.80.3.501
Entwistle, N. J. (1972). Personality and Academic Attainment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 42, 137‒151. doi:10.1111/j.2044‒8279.1972. tb00707.x
Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: a natural science approach. New York: Plenum Press.
Farsides, T., & Woodfield, R. (2003). Individual differences and undergradu- ate academic success: The roles of personality, intelligence, and applica- tion. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1225‒1243. doi:10.1016/ S0191‒8869(02)00111‒3
Fenollar, P., Roman, S., & Cuestas P. J. (2007). University students’ aca- demic performance: An integrative conceptual framework and em- pirical analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 873‒891. doi:10.1348/000709907X189118
Gilman, R., & Anderman, E. M. (2006). The relationship between relative levels mo- tivation and intrapersonal, interpersonal, and academic functioning among older adolescents. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 375–391. doi:10.1016/j. jsp.2006.03.004
Gottfried, A. E. (1985). Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and jun- ior high school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 631–645. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.77.6.631
Gottfried, A. E. (1990). Academic intrinsic motivation in young elemen- tary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 525–538. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.82.3.525
Hair, E. C., & Graziano, W. (2003). Self‒Esteem, Personality and Achievement in High School: A Prospective Longitudinal Study in Texas. Journal of Personal- ity, 71, 971‒994. doi:10.1111/1467‒6494.7106004
Hakimi, S., Hejazi, E., & Lavasani, M. G. (2011). The Relationships Between Per- sonality Traits and Students’ Academic Achievement. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 836‒845. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.312
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, S. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Short‒term and long‒term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting interest and performance over time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 316‒330. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.92.2.316
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A metaanalytic review of achievement goal measures: Different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136, 422‒449. doi:10.1037/a0018947
Jensen, M. (2015). Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements. Jour-
nal of Education and Learning, 4(4), 91‒118. doi:10.5539/jel.v4n4p91
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measure- ment, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Hand- book of personality: Theory and Research (pp. 102‒138). New York, NY: Guil- ford Press.
King, R. B., & McInerney, D. M. (2014). The work avoidance goal construct: Ex- amining its structure, antecedents, and consequences. Contemporary Educa- tional Psychology, 39, 42‒58. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.12.002
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Kodžopeljić, J. i Pekić, J. (2017). Psihologija u nastavi. Odabrane teme iz psihologije obrazovanja. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.
Komarraju, M., Karau, S. J., & Schmeck, R. R. (2009). Role of the Big Five person- ality traits in predicting college students’ academic motivation and achieve- ment. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 47‒52. doi:10.1016/j.lin- dif.2008.07.001
Laidra, K., Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as pre- dictors of academic achievement: A cross‒sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 441‒451. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.08.001
Lin, Y., McKeachie, W. J., & Kim, Y. C. (2003). College student intrinsic and/or ex- trinsic motivation and learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 13, 251– 258. doi:10.1016/S1041‒6080(02)00092‒4
Lončarić, D. (2010). Spol i dob kao odrednice samoreguliranog učenja za cjeloživotno obrazovanje. U R. Bacalja (Ur.), Zbornik radova s međunarodnog znanstveno stručnog skupa Perspektive cjeloživotnog obrazovanja učitelja i odgojitelja (str. 104‒118). Zadar: Sveučilište u Zadru.
Matešić, K. i Zarevski, P. (2008). Povezanost opće inteligencije i dimenzija ličnosti sa školskim postignućem. Metodika, 17, 9, 260‒270.
Mattern, R. A. (2005). College Students’ Goal Orientations and Achievement. In- ternational Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17, 27‒32.
Matthew, G., Schwean, V. L., Campbell, S. E., Saklofske, D. H., & Mohamed, A.
R. (2000). Personality, Self‒regulation and Adaptation: A Cognitive‒so- cial Framework. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Hand- book of Self–regulation (pp. 101‒207). New York: Academic. doi:10.1016/ B978‒012109890‒2/50035‒4
Nacionalni centar za vanjsko vrednovanje obrazovanja. (2015). Nastavni planovi i programi za gimnazije i strukovne škole. Preuzeto 07. septembra 2018 sa:‒planovi‒i‒programi‒za‒gimnazije‒i‒stru- kovne‒skole/
Nicholls, J. G., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. B. (1985). Adolescents’ theo- ries of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 683‒692. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.77.6.683
Niemivirta, M. (1996, March). Motivational-cognitive components in self-regulated learning. Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Motivation, Landau, Germany.
Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986). Defensive Pessimism: Harnessing Anxiety as Mo- tivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 1208‒1217. doi:10.1 037//0022‒3514.51.6.1208
Pahljina‒Reinić, R. i Kukić, M. (2015). Ciljne orijentacije studenata i prilagodba na studij. Psihologijske teme, 24, 543‒556.
Payne, S. C., Youngcourt, S. S., & Beaubien, J. M. (2007). A meta‒analytic examina- tion of the goal orientation nomological net. The Journal of Applied Psychol- ogy, 92(1), 128–50. doi: 10.1037/0021‒9010.92.1.128
Poropat, A. E. (2009). A Meta‒Analysis of the Five‒Factor Model of Personality and Academic Performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 322‒338. doi:10.1037/ a0014996
Rijavec, M., Raboteg‒Šarić, Z. i Franc, R. (1999). Komponente samoregulisanog učenja i školski uspjeh. Društvena istraživanja, 8, 529‒541.
Rončević Zubković, B. (2013). Samoregulacija čitanja. U M. Mićanović (Ur.), Zbornik radova s IV. simpozija učitelja i nastavnika hrvatskoga jezika Čitanje za školu i život (str. 33‒41). Zagreb: Agencija za odgoj i obrazovanje.
Rosander, P., & Bäckström, M. (2012). The unique contribution of learning ap- proaches to academic performance, after controlling for IQ and personality: Are there gender differences? Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 820– 826. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.05.011
Sanchez‒Marin, M., Rejano‒Infante, E., & Rodriguez‒Troyano, Y. (2001). Personal- ity and academic productivity in the university student. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 299‒305. doi:10.2224/sbp.2001.29.3.299
Shim, S., & Ryan, A. (2005). Changes in self‒efficacy, challenge avoidance, and intrinsic value in response to grades: The role of achievement goals. The Journal of Experimental Education, 73, 333‒349. doi:10.3200/JEXE.73.4.333‒349
Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self‒enhancing and self‒defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self‒perceptions, and anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 71– 81. doi:10.1037/0022‒0663.89.1.71
Sorić, I. (2014). Samoregulacija učenja: Možemo li naučiti učiti. Jastrebarsko: Na- klada Slap.
Stanišak Pilatuš, I., Jurčec, L. i Rijavec, M. (2013). Ciljne orijentacije u učenju: dobne i spolne razlike i povezanost sa školskim uspjehom. Napredak: časopis za pedagogijsku teoriju i praksu, 154(4), 473‒491.
Steinmayr, R., Bipp, T., & Spinath, B. (2011). Goal orientations predict academic performance beyond intelligence and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 196‒200. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.11.026
VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orien- tation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 8, 995‒1015. doi:10.1177/0013164497057006009
Vizek Vidović, V., Rijavec, M., Vlahović‒Štetić, V. i Miljković D. (2003). Psihologija obrazovanja. Zagreb: IEP‒VERN.
Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2000). Intelligence and personality. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 581‒610). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807947.027



How to Cite

Vrdoljak, G., Lovaković, I., & Kurtović, A. PERSONALITY TRAITS, GOAL ORIENTATIONS AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT. Primenjena Psihologija, 11(3), 325–344.



Regular issues