KOMPLEKSNOST I INKLUZIVNOST SOCIJALNOG IDENTITETA KAO POSREDNICI UTICAJA SOCIJALNE NORME NA ODNOS PREMA NEPRIPADNIČKIM GRUPAMA

  • Ana Đorđević Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju, Univerzitet u Beogradu
Ključne reči: međugrupni odnosi, socijalni identitet, socijalne norme, stavovi prema nepripadničkim grupama

Apstrakt

U ovoj studiji ispitivali smo prediktivnu moć kompleksnosti i inkluzivnosti socijalnog identiteta u odnosu na stavove prema nepripadničkim grupama, uticaj socijalne norme na kompleksnost i inkluzivnost identiteta, kao i medijatorsku ulogu kompleksnosti i inkluzivnosti u odnosu između socijalne norme i stavova prema drugim grupama. Kompleksnost socijalnog identiteta referiše na subjektivni doživljaj preklapanja sopstvenih grupa, dok inkluzivnost predstavlja meru identifikacije sa ljudima na osnovu socijalnih identiteta. Korišćene su nacionalna (građani Srbije/građani Hrvatske), etnička (Srbi/Hrvati) i religijska grupa (pravoslavci/katolici). Uzorak je činilo 153 ljudi (36% muškaraca) prosečnog uzrasta 26 godina. Rezultati pokazuju da je inkluzivnost, ali ne i kompleksnost, snažan prediktor prihvatanja pripadnika drugih grupa, merenog preko termometra osećanja i skale socijalne distance. U eksperimentalnoj fazi studije, pokušali smo da ispitanicima sa manjom spremnošću za prihvatanje pripadnika drugih grupa (N = 40) prezentovanjem grupne norme promenimo stavove i ispitamo da li u tome posreduje promena u doživljaju granica svojih socijalnih identiteta (kompleksnost i inkluzivnost). Izlaganje deskriptivnoj grupnoj normi, datoj u vidu fiktivnog izveštaja sa naučnog istraživanja, dovelo je do većeg prihvatanja tuđih grupa, ali i neočekivano smanjilo kompleksnost socijalnog identiteta. Moguće je da je način na koji smo plasirali informaciju o grupnoj normi narušio osećaj jedinstvenosti grupe ispitanika, te su oni pribegavali jednostavnijim strukturama identiteta. Predložili smo da se u budućim istraživanjima koriste intervencije koje bi specifičnije ciljale na promene u identitetskoj kompleksnosti i inkluzivnosti, kao i da se porede iste intervencije na različitim grupama.

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