EMOCIJE I IZGARANJE NA RADU IZ REBT PERSPEKTIVE: KRATKA PROSPEKTIVNA STUDIJA

  • Boris Popov Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Dragana Jelić Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Sara Raković Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Jelena Matanović Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sad
Ključne reči: disfunkcionalne negativne emocije, funkcionalne negativne emocije, izgaranje na radu, pozitivne emocije, REBT model emocija

Apstrakt

Cilj istraživanja bio je da se testira REBT model emocija u pre- dikciji izgaranja na radu. Na osnovu pretpostavki modela, pret- postavljeno je da će disfunkcionalne negativne emocije (DNE) ostvariti pozitivan efekat na izgaranje, da će pozitivne emocije ostvariti (PE) ostvariti negativan efekat na izgaranje, a da će efe- kat funkcionalnih negativnih emocija (FNE) biti neznačajan. Kako bi se testirale postavljene hipoteze, sprovedena je kratka longitu- dinalna studija, sa ukupnim trajanjem od 12 nedelja (tri merenja sa po šest nedelja razmaka između svakog merenja). Učešće u prvom merenju uzelo je 197 zaposlenih ispitanika (60.3% žena). Usled osipanja uzorka, ukupno 113 ispitanika (64.6% žena) imalo je validne odgovore na sva tri merenja (Little MCAR test nezna- čajan, sugerišući da su nedostajući podaci slučajno raspoređeni). Ispitanici su popunili Skalu izgaranja iz Kopenhagen inventara izgaranja i listu funckionalnih i disfunkcionalnih emocija, kreiranu za potrebe istraživanja. Na osnovu rezultata može se zaključiti da je obrnuti kauzalni model pokazao bolje indekse podesnosti u poređenju sa kauzalnim, sugerišući da je verovatnije da izgaranje predviđa emocije, nego obrnuto. Što je još interesantnije, izga- ranje je ostvarilo veći efekat na FNE, nego na DNE. Ipak, u istoj vremenskoj tačci je slučaj obrnut – izgleda da emocije predviđaju izgaranje, pre nego obrnuto. Štaviše, u vremenu merenja 3, FNE su ostvarile veći (iako veoma sličan) efekat na izgaranje, u pore- đenju sa DNE. U vremenu 2, jedino DNE su ostvarile značajan efekat na izgaranje. Konačno, PE nisu ostvarile značajan efekat na izgaranje. Rezultati su komentarisani iz ugla REBT teorijskog modela emocija. Na samom kraju rada, prodiskutovana su ogra- ničenja studije, kao i preporuke za buduća istraživanja.

Reference

Allcorn, S. (1994). Anger in the workplace: Understanding the causes of aggression and violence. Westport: Quorum Books. doi:10.2307/253542
Andrea, H. H., Bültmann, H. H., Beurskens, A. M., Swaen, G. H., van Schayck, C. P.,
& Kant, I. J. (2004). Anxiety and depression in the working population using the HAD Scale: Psychometrics, prevalence and relationships with psychoso- cial work characteristics. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(8), 637‒646. doi:10.1007/s00127‒004‒0797‒6
Andrea, H., Bültmann, U., van Amelsvoort, L. M., & Kant, Y. (2009). The incidence of anxiety and depression among employees‒The role of psychosocial work characteristics. Depression And Anxiety, 26(11), 1040‒1048. doi:10.1002/ da.20516
Ashby, F. G, Isen A. M., & Turken A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of posi- tive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106(3), 529– 550. doi:10.1037//0033‒295x.106.3.529
Ashby, F. G., Valentin, V. V., & Turken, A. U. (2002). The effects of positive affect and arousal on working memory and executive attention. In S. Moore, & M. Oaks- ford (Eds.), Emotional Cognition: From Brain to Behaviour (pp. 245‒287). Am- sterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/aicr.44.11ash
Bagozzi, R. P. (2003). Positive and negative emotions in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholar- ship (pp. 176‒193). San Francisco: Berrett‒Koehler.
Basinska, B. A., Wiciak, I., & Dåderman, A. M. (2014). Fatigue and burnout in police officers: the mediating role of emotions. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 37(3), 665‒680. doi:10.1108/pi- jpsm‒10‒2013‒0105
Bedyńska, S., & Żołnierczyk‒Zreda, D. (2015). Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emo- tions. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 21(1), 1‒8. doi:10.1080/10803548.2015.1017939
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Mul- tivariate Software Inc.
Berat, N., Jelić, D., & Popov, B. (2016). Serbian version of the Work Burnout Scale from the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: Adaptation and psychometric prop- erties. Applied Psychology, 9(2), 177–198. doi:10.19090/pp.2016.2.177‒198 Brackett, M. A., Palomera, R., Mojsa-Kaja, J., Reyes, M. R., & Salovey, P. (2010). Emo- tion-regulation ability, burnout, and job satisfaction among British second-
ary-school teachers. Psychology in the Schools, 47(4), 406‒417. doi:10.1002/ pits.20478
Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the work- place. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 279‒307. doi:10.1146/annurev. psych.53.100901.135156
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In
K. A. Bollen, & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 1−9). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. doi:10.1177/0049124192021002005
Bunk, J. A., & Magley, V. J. (2013). The role of appraisals and emotions in under- standing experiences of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(1), 87‒105. doi:10.1037/a0030987
Carpenter, S. M., Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., & Isen, A. M. (2013). Positive feelings facili- tate working memory and complex decision making among older adults. Cog- nition & Emotion, 27(1), 184‒192. doi:10.1080/02699931.2012.698251
Chang, M. L. (2013). Toward a theoretical model to understand teacher emotions and teacher burnout in the context of student misbehavior: Appraisal, reg- ulation and coping. Motivation and Emotion, 37(4), 799‒817. doi:10.1007/ s11031‒012‒9335‒0
David, D., Szentagotai, A., Eva, K., & Macavei, B. (2005). A synopsis of rational‒ emotive behavior therapy (REBT); fundamental and applied research. Jour- nal of Rational–Emotive and Cognitive–Behavior Therapy, 23(3), 175‒221. doi:10.1007/s10942‒005‒0011‒0
Demerouti, E. (2006). Job characteristics, flow, and performance: The moderating role of conscientiousness. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(3), 266‒280. doi:10.1037/1076‒8998.11.3.266
Douglas, S. C., & Martinko, M. J. (2001). Exploring the role of individual differ- ences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychol- ogy, 86(4), 547‒559. doi:10.1037//0021‒9010.86.4.547
Eisenberger, R., Jones, J. R., Stinglhamber, F., Shanock, L., & Randall, A. T. (2005). Flow experiences at work: For high need achievers alone?. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(7), 755‒775. doi:10.1002/ job.337
Eng, P. M., Fitzmaurice, G., Kubzansky, L. D., Rimm, E. B., & Kawachi, I. (2003). Anger expression and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease among male health professionals. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(1), 100‒110. doi:10.1097/01. psy.0000040949.22044.c6
Fernet, C., Lavigne, G. L., Vallerand, R. J., & Austin, S. (2014). Fired up with passion: Investigating how job autonomy and passion predict burnout at career start in teachers. Work & Stress, 28(3), 270‒288. doi:10.1080/02678373.2014.93 5524
Fisher, C. D. (2000). Mood and emotions while working: missing pieces of job satisfaction?. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Jour- nal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behav- ior, 21(2), 185‒202. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099‒1379(200003)21:2<185::aid‒
job34>3.0.co;2‒m
Fisher, C. D., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2000). The emerging role of emotions in work life: An introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behav- ior, 21(2), 123‒129. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099‒1379(200003)21:2<123::aid‒
job33>3.3.co;2‒#
Fitzgerald, S. T., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Suchday, S., & Ewart, C. K. (2003). An- ger in Young Black and White Workers: Effects of Job Control, Dissatis- faction, and Support. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26(4), 283‒296. doi:10.1023/a:1024228026022
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). Cultivated emotions: Parental socialization of positive emotions and self‒conscious emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 279‒281. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0904_4
Glasø, L., Vie, T., Holmdal, G., & Einarsen, S. (2011). An application of affective events theory to workplace bullying: The role of emotions, trait anxiety, and trait anger. European Psychologist, 16(3), 198‒208. doi:10.1027/1016‒9040/ a000026
Glomb, T. M., Steel, P. D., & Arvey, R. D. (2002). Office sneers, snipes, and stab wounds: Antecedents, consequences, and implications of workplace violence and aggression. In R. Lord, R. Klimoski, & R. Kanfer (Eds.), Frontiers of Indus- trial and Organizational Psychology: Emotions and Work (pp. 227–259). San Francisco: Jossey‒Bass.
Gollob, H. & Reichardt, C. (1991). Interpreting and estimating indirect effects as- suming time lags really matter. In L. Collins, & J. Horn (Eds.), Best Methods for the Analysis of Change: Recent Advances, Unanswered Questions, Future Directions (pp. 243‒259). Washington: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10099‒015
Grandey, A. A., Tam, A. P., & Brauburger, A. L. (2002). Affective States and Traits in the Workplace: Diary and Survey Data from Young Workers. Motivation & Emotion, 26(1), 31‒55. doi:10.1023/A:1015142124306
Gray, J. R. (2001). Emotional modulation of cognitive control: Approach–with- drawal states double‒dissociate spatial from verbal two‒back task perfor- mance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(3), 436‒452. doi:10
.1037//0096‒3445.130.3.436
Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The Job Demands‒Re- sources model: A three‒year cross‒lagged study of burnout, depres- sion, commitment, and work engagement. Work & Stress, 22(3), 224‒241. doi:10.1080/02678370802379432
Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural Equation Modeling, Concepts, Issues, and Applications (pp. 1−15). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covari- ance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alterna- tives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta‒analysis of three decades of research. Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361‒389. doi:10.1037/a0022876
Innstrand, S., Langballe, E., & Falkum, E. (2012). A Longitudinal Study of the Rela- tionship between Work Engagement and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depres- sion. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 28(1), 1‒10. doi:10.1002/smi.1395
Isen, A. M., (2008). Positive affect and decision processes: some recent theoretical developments with practical implications. In C. F. R. Haugdvedt, P. H. Herr, & F.
R. Kardes (Eds), Handbook of Consumer Psychology (pp. 273‒296). New York, NY: Erlbaum. doi:10.1207/153276601750408311
Johnson, P. R., & Indvik, J. (2000). Rebels, criticizers, backstabbers, and busybod- ies: Anger and aggression at work. Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 165‒174. doi:10.1177/009102600002900201
Katsaros, K. K., & Nicolaidis, C. S. (2012). Personal traits, emotions, and attitudes in the workplace: Their effect on managers’ tolerance of ambiguity. The Psy- chologist–Manager Journal, 15(1), 37‒55. doi:10.1080/10887156.2012.649
991
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, third edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
Little, L. M., Simmons, B. L., & Nelson, D. L. (2007). Health among leaders: Posi- tive and negative affect, engagement and burnout, forgiveness and revenge. Journal of Management Studies, 44(2), 243‒260. doi:10.1111/j.1467‒ 6486.2007.00687.x
Lively, K. J. (2006). Emotions in the Workplace. In: Stets J. E., & Turner J. H. (Eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions: Handbooks of Sociology and Social Re- search (pp. 569‒590). Springer, Boston, MA. doi:10.1007/978‒0‒387‒3071 5‒2_25
Lively, K. J., & Powell, B. (2006). Emotional Expression at Work and at Home: Domain, Status, or Individual Characteristics?. Social Psychology Quarter- ly, 69(1), 17‒38. doi:10.1177/019027250606900103
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task performance.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice‒Hall, Inc. doi:10.5860/choice.28‒0608 Mäkikangas, A., Bakker, A. B., Aunola, K., & Demerouti, E. (2010). Job resources
and flow at work: Modelling the relationship via latent growth curve and mix- ture model methodology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychol- ogy, 83(3), 795‒814. doi:10.1348/096317909x476333
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 498‒512. doi:10.1037/0021‒9010.93.3.498
Mignonac, K., & Herrbach, O. (2004). Linking work events, affective states, and attitudes: an empirical study of managers’ emotions. Journal of Business & Psychology, 19(2), 221‒240. doi:10.1007/s10869‒004‒0549‒3
Milfont, T. L., Denny, S., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., & Merry, S. (2008). Burn- out and wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen burnout inventory in New Zea- land teachers. Social Indicators Research, 89(1), 169‒177. doi:10.1007/ s11205‒007‒9229‒9
Mogoase, C., & Stefan, S. (2013). Is there a difference between functional and dys- functional negative emotions? The preliminary validation of the functional and dysfunctional negative emotions scale (FADNES). Journal of Evidence– Based Psychotherapies, 13(1), 13‒32.
Muchinsky, P. M. (2000). Emotions in the workplace: The neglect of organi- zational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 801‒805. doi:10.1002/1099‒1379(200011)21:7<801::AID‒JOB999>3.0.CO;2‒A
Popov, B., Miljanović, M., Stojaković, M., & Matanović, J. (2013). Work stressors, distress, and burnout: the role of coping strategies. Applied Psychology, 6(4), 355‒370. doi:10.19090/pp.2013.4.355‒370
Popov, B., Raković, S., & Jelić, D. (2017). Model organizacijskog zdravlja: predikcija blagostanja zaposlenih i organizacijske uspešnosti [Organiza- tional health framework: Predicting employee well‒being and organisa- tional performance]. Primenjena psihologija, 10(1), 81‒101. doi:10.19090/ pp.2017.1.81‒101
Schaufeli, W. B., & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Introduction to special is- sue on burnout and health. Psychology & Health, 16(5), 501‒510. doi:10.1080/08870440108405523
Sloan, M. M. (2012). Controlling Anger and Happiness at Work: An Examina- tion of Gender Differences. Gender, Work & Organization, 19(4), 370‒391. doi:10.1111/j.1468‒0432.2010.00518.x
Smith, L. A., Roman, A., Dollard, M. F., Winefield, A. H., & Siegrist, J. (2005). Effort– reward imbalance at work: the effects of work stress on anger and cardiovas- cular disease symptoms in a community sample. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 21(2), 113‒128. doi:10.1002/smi.1045
Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). The Stressor‒Emotion Model of Counterproduc- tive Work Behavior. In S. Fox, & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive Work Behavior: Investigations of Actors and Targets (pp. 151‒174). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10893‒007
Stets, J. E., & Tsushima, T. M. (2001). Negative emotion and coping responses within identity control theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 64(3), 283‒295. doi:10.2307/3090117
Testa, M. R. (2001). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and effort in the service environment. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Ap- plied,135(2), 226‒236. doi:10.1080/00223980109603693
Tiba, A., & Szentagotai, A. (2005). Positive emotions and irrational beliefs. Dys- functional positive emotions in healthy individuals. Journal of Cognitive & Be- havioral Psychotherapies, 5(1), 53‒73. doi:10.1037/t41838‒000
Tobert, S., & Moneta, G. B. (2013). Flow as a Function of Affect and Coping in the Workplace. Individual Differences Research, 11(3), 102‒113.
Tripp, T.M. & Bies, R.J. (2010). “Righteous” Anger and Revenge in the Workplace: The Fantasies, the Feuds, the Forgiveness. In M. Potegal, G. Stemmler, & C. Spielberger (Eds.), International Handbook of Anger (pp. 413‒431). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978‒0‒387‒89676‒2_24
van Vegchel, N., de Jonge, J., Meijer, T., & Hamers, J. H. (2001). Different effort constructs and effort‒reward imbalance: effects on employee well‒being in ancillary health care workers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(1), 128‒136. doi:10.1046/j.1365‒2648.2001.3411726.x
Yang, J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). The relations of daily counterproductive work- place behavior with emotions, situational antecedents, and personality mod- erators: A diary study in Hong Kong. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 259‒295. doi:10.1111/j.1744‒6570.2009.01138.x
Zellars, K. L., Hochwarter, W. A., Perrewe, P. L., Hoffman, N., & Ford, E. W. (2004). Experiencing job burnout: The roles of positive and negative traits and states. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 887‒911. doi:10.1111/j.1559‒1816.2004.tb02576.x
Objavljeno
25. 09. 2018.
Broj časopisa
Sekcija
Članci