MODEL OF EFFECTS OF CULTURAL CAPITAL AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON KEY COMPETENCIES OF PUPILS
The main purpose of this study was to examine the relations between three forms of cultural capital (institutionalized, embodied and objectified), individual motivational factors (self-efficacy, school anxiety, intrinsic motivation, and valuing education), and key competencies of pupils. The results represent a secondary analysis of data obtained on a sample of 337 pupils who participated in PISA study (2009) conducted in Serbia. A proposed model of causal relations between cultural capital, motivational factors, and key competencies was confirmed. The obtained findings support the theory of self-efficacy, in which behavior and motivation are regarded as a product of complex interaction of individual and social factors, as well as behavior. The research confirmed that key competencies of pupils were influenced by personal characteristics, school anxiety in particular, but also by the characteristics of the socio-cultural context, such as the objectified and embodied cultural capital. It was found that cultural capital contributed to the development of personal characteristics that are predispositions for the key competencies, but it also had a direct effect on competencies.
motivation, academic achievement, and intention to drop out of high school: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 241−252. doi:10.1080/00220671003728062
Andersen, I. G., & Jaeger, M. M. (2015). Cultural capital in context: Heterogeneous returns to cultural capital across schooling environments. Social Science Research, 50, 177−188. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.11.015
Aschaffenburg, K., & Mass, I. (1997). Cultural and educational careers: The dynamics of
social reproduction. American Sociological Review, 62, 573−587.
Ashford, J. B., & LeCroy, C. W. (2010). Human behavior in the social environment: A multidimensional perspective (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Rewiew, 84, 191−215.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117−148. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
Barone, C. (2006). Cultural capital, ambition, and the explanation of inequalities in learning outcomes: A comparative analysis. Sociology, 40, 1039−1058. doi:10.1177/0038038506069843
Baucal, A. (2012a). Uticaj ekonomskog statusa na obrazovna postignuća: direktni i indirektni uticaji. Primenjena psihologija, 1, 5−24. doi:10.19090/pp.2012.1.5-24
Baucal, A. (2012b). Ključne kompetencije mladih u Srbiji u PISA 2009 ogledalu. Beo¬grad: Ministarstvo prosvete Republike Srbije i Institut za psihologiju.
Baucal, A. i Pavlović-Babić, D. (2009). Kvalitet i pravednost obrazovanja u Srbiji: obrazovne šanse siromašnih. Beograd: Ministarstvo prosvete Republike Srbije i Institut za psihologiju.
Baucal, A. i Pavlović-Babić, D. (2010). PISA 2009 u Srbiji: prvi rezultati – Nauči me da mislim, nauči me da učim. Beograd: Institut za psihologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu i Centar za primenjenu psihologiju.
Bempechat, J., & Shernoff, D. J. (2012). Parental influences on achievement motivation and student engagement. In S. L. Christenson et al. (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 315−342). New York: Springer Science.
Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Review of Economic Studies, 70, 489−520. doi:10.1111/1467-937X.00253
Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. (1997). What did you do today? Children’s use of time, family composition, and the acquisition of cultural capital. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 332−344.
Bogard, K. (2005). Affluent adolescents, depression, and drug use: The role of adults in their lives. Adolescence, 40, 281−306.
Bohon, S. A., Johnson, M. K., & Gorman, B. K. (2006). College aspirations and expectations among Latino adolescents in the United States. Social Problems, 53, 207−225. doi:10.1525/sp.2006.53.2.207
Bourdieu, P. (1973). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In R. Brown (Ed.),
Knowledge, education and cultural change (pp. 71−112). London: Tavistock.
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of
theory and research for sociology of education (pp. 241−258). New York: Greenwood.
Bourdieu, P. (2011). Distinkcija: društvena kritika suđenja. Zagreb: Antibarbarus.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture.
London: Sage publications.
Brophy, J. (2010). Motivating students to learn (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Brooks, R. L., & Van Noy, M. (2007). A study of self‐esteem and self‐efficacy as psychosocial educational outcomes: The role of high school experiences and influences. Retrieved from http://www.texastop10.princeton.edu/conference/seminar08/Brooks_HighSchoolExperiences_v.01.pdf
Brubaker, R. (1985). Rethinking classical theory: The sociological vision of Pierre
Bourdieu. Theory and Society, 14, 745−775.
Burdije, P. i Paseron, Ž. K. (2014). Reprodukcija. Elementi za jednu teoriju obrazovnog
sistema. Beograd: Fabrika knjiga.
Burke, N. J., Bird, J. A., Clark, M. A., Rakowski, W., Guerra, C., Barker, J. C., & Pasick, R.
J. (2009). Social and cultural meanings of self-efficacy. Health Education Behavior, 36, 111–128. doi:10.1177/1090198109338916
Caro, D. H., Sandoval-Hernandez, A., & Lüdtke, O. (2014). Cultural, social, and economic
capital constructs in international assesments: An evaluation using exploratory structural equation modeling. School Effecttiveness and School Improvement, 25, 433−450. doi:10.1080/09243453.2013.812568
Codina, N., Valenzuela, R., & Pestana, J. V. (2012). Flow in music class: The moderating effect of family cultural capital. Paper presented on The XII World Leisure Congress, Rimini, Italy.
Chiu, M. M., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2010). Culture, motivation, and reading achievement: High school students in 41 countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 579–592. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.03.007
Chiu, M. M., & Klassen, R. M. (2010). Relations of mathematics self-concept and its calibration with mathematics achievement: Cultural differences among fifteenyear-olds in 34 countries. Learning and Instruction, 20, 2−17. doi:10.1080/01443410.2013.864753
Chiu, M. M., Pong, S., Mori, I., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2012). Immigrant students’ emotional and cognitive engagement at school: a multilevel analysis of students in 41 countries. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 41, 1409–1425. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9763-x
Chiu, M. M., & Zeng, X. (2008). Family and motivation effects on mathematics achievement. Learning and Instruction, 18, 321−336. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.03.007
Crook, C. J. (1997). Cultural practices and socioeconomic attainment: The Australian
experience. Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Cvetičanin, P. (Ed.). (2012). Social and cultural capital in Serbia. Niš: Centre for Empirical Cultural Studies of South-East Europe.
Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304. doi: 10.1037/0893-322.214.171.1244
DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture
participation on the grades of U.S. high school students. American Sociological Review, 47, 189−201. doi:10.2307/2094962
DiMaggio, P., & Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital
selection. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1231−1261. doi:10.1086/228209
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The undermining effect is a reality after all: Extrinsic rewards, task interest, and self-determination. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 692−700. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.692
De Graaf, P. M. (1986). The impact of financial and cultural resources on educational
attainment in the Netherlands. Sociology of Education, 59, 237−246.
De Graaf, N. D., De Graaf, P., & Kraaykamp, G. (2000). Parental cultural capital and
educational attainment in Netherlands: A refinement of the cultural capital perspective. Sociology of Education, 73, 92−111. doi:10.2307/2673239
Dumais, S. (2002). Cultural capital, gender and school success: The role of habitus.
Sociology of Education, 75, 44−68. doi:10.1080/13670050.2011.626846
Dumais, S. (2006). Early childhood cultural capital, parental habitus, and teacher's
perception. Poetics, 34, 83−107. doi: 10.1016/j.poetic.2005.09.003
Earley, P. C., Gibson, C. B., & Chen, C. C. (1999). “How did I do?” versus “How we do?”: Cultural contrasts of performance feedback use and self-efficacy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 594−619. doi:10.1177/0022022199030005003
Evans, M. D., Kelley, J., Sikora, J., & Treiman, D. (2010). Family scholarly culture and
educational success: Books and schooling in 27 nations. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 28, 171−197. doi:10.1016/j.rssm.2010.01.002
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109. doi:10.3102/00346543074001059
Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 3−13. doi:10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hatlevik, O. E., Guðmundsdóttir, G. B., & Loi, M. (2015). Digital diversity among upper secondary students: A multilevel analysis of the relationship between cultural capital, self-efficacy, strategic use of information and digital competence. Computers & Education, 81, 345−353. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.019
Hoyle, R. H. (2000). Confirmatory factor analysis. In H. E. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Eds.),
Applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 465–497). San Diego: Academic Press.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure
analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Jaeger, M. M., & Holm, A. (2007). Does parents' economic, cultural and social capital explain the social class effect on educational attainment in the Scandinavian mobility regime? Social Science Research, 36, 719–744. doi:10.1177/0038040711417010
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.
Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 184−196. doi:10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52
Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C. (1996). Transforming school cultures. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Marić, M. (2010). Osobine ličnosti, životni događaji i anksioznost adolescenata. Primenjena psihologija, 1, 39−57. doi:10.19090/pp.2010.1.39-57
Маrić, М., & Sаkаč, М. (2014). Individual and social factors related to students’ academic achievement and motivation for learning. Suvremena psihologija, 17, 63−79.
Morony, S., Kleitman, S., Ping Lee, Z., & Stankov, L. (2013). Predicting achievement: Confidence vs. self-efficacy, anxiety, and self-concept in Confucian and European countries. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 79−96. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2012.11.002
Notten, N., Lancee, B., Van de Werfhorst, H. G., & Ganzeboom, H. B. G. (2013). Educational stratification in cultural participation: Cognitive competence or status motivation? AIAS, GINI Discussion Paper 77. Retrieved from http://gini-research.org/system/uploads/578/original/77.pdf?1385131234
OECD (2010). PISA 2009 Results (Vol 1−5). Paris: OECD.
Pajares, F. (2009). Toward a positive psychology of academic motivation: The role of self-efficacy beliefs. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 149−160). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Perception (pp. 239−266). London: Ablex Publishing.
Parcel, T., & Menaghan, E. (1994). Early parental work, family social capital, and early childhood outcomes. American Journal of Sociology, 99, 972–1009.
Perna, L. W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites. Journal of Higher Education, 71, 117−141. doi:10.2307/2649245
Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. A. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: an examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76, 485−518. doi:10.2307/3838837
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psyhology, 82, 33−44. doi:O022-O663/90/S00.75
Porter, S. (2006). Institutional structures and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 47, 531–558. doi:10.1007/s11162-005-9006-z
Reay, D. (2000). A useful extension of Bourdieu’s conceptual framework?: Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education? Sociological Review, 5, 568−585. doi:10.1111/1467-954X.00233
Redford, J., Johnson, J. A., & Honnold, J. (2009). Parenting practices, cultural capital and educational outcomes: The effects of concerted cultivation on academic achievement. Race, Gender & Class, 16(1/2), 25–44. doi:jstor.org/stable/41658859
Rychen D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Cambridge: Hogrefe & Huber.
Rowan‐Kenyon, H. T. (2007). Predictors of delayed college enrollment and the impact of socioeconomic status. Journal of Higher Education, 78, 188−214. doi:10.1353/jhe.2007.0012
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68−78. doi:10.1037110003-066X.55.1.68
Sullivan, A. (2001). Cultural capital and educational attainment. Sociology 35, 893−912. doi:10.1177/0038038501035004006
Sullivan, A., & Brown, M. (2013). Social inequalities in cognitive scores at age 16: The role
of reading. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Working Papers (13/10).
Thompson, B. (2005). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis – understanding
concepts and applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Tramonte, L., & Willms, J. D. (2010). Cultural capital and its effects in education outcomes. Economic of Education Review, 29, 200−213. doi:2FS0272-775728092900056
Wang, M. T., & Holcombe R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47, 633–662. doi:10.3102/0002831209361209
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68−81. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1015
Zepke, N., & Leach, L. (2010). Improving student engagement: Ten proposals for action. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11, 167–177. doi:10.1177/1469787410379680
Zhao, C., & Kuh, G. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45, 115–138. doi:EJ735870