DISTINCTION WITHIN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT: VALIDATION OF THE SERBIAN ADAPTATION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT SCHEDULE (PANAS)

Authors

  • Emilija Drobnjaković Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad
  • Bojana Dinić Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad
  • Ljiljana Mihić Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19090/pp.2017.2.203-225

Keywords:

Serbian adaptation of PANAS, validation, HEXACO, induction of affect

Abstract

In previous research convergent and divergent validity of the Serbian adaptation of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were confirmed via correlations with personality traits and via induction of sadness and awe feeling. In this research further validation of the PANAS was tested, considering the content of specific subscales and not general positive (PA) or general negative affect (NA). Two studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 410 students), the relationships between the PANAS and the HEXACO–PI–R subscales were tested. Results showed that the main correlate of the PANAS subscales is extraversion, and its facets, while certain facets from the other personality scales had low or moderate correlations with the  PANAS subscales. Results showed that there was a compatibility between affects and traits. Also, it is noticed that  the fear subscale from the PANAS had a higher correlation with the anxiety facet , compared to the fearfulness facet, both from  the HEXACO–PI–R. In the second study, we investigated changes in the PANAS subscales before and after induction of anger, fear, happiness, and neutral affect. In this experiment, 87 students participated, and they were divided into four groups, depending on induced affect. Induction was conducted using movie clips. Results showed that the fear and happiness subscales were successful in catching changes in their respective affects. Namely, there was a significant change on these subscales when compatible affect  was induced, whereas no changes were detected in other subscales within the same affect domain (PA or NA). However, in the induction of anger, there was a significant increase in scores on the  fear subscale, but scores on the hostility subscale remained the same. When analyzing the items within the fear subscale with a significant change, it was noticed that their content was referring to behavioral tension, but not directly to the fear affect. Moreover, scores on the attentiveness subscale were high before and after induction, which could indicate that this aspect of positive affect is different from others. Results showed that the Serbian adaptation of the PANAS is a valid affect measure. However, the caution is needed when interpreting scores on the NA scale, because its subscales share some characteristics such as behavioral tension.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(2), 150–166. doi:10.1177/1088868306294907

Balatsky, G., & Diener, E. (1993). Subjective well–being among Russian students. Social Indicators Research, 28(3), 225–243. doi:10.1007/BF01079019

Berkowitz, L. (2000). Anger. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 411–428). Chichester, UK/New York: Wiley.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well–being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(4), 668–678. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.38.4.668

Cotigă, M. I. (2012). Development and validation of a Romanian version of the expanded version of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS–X). Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 248–252. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.121

Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non‐clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 245–265. doi:10.1348/0144665031752934

Egloff, B., Schmukle, S. C., Burns, L. R., Kohlmann, C. W., & Hock, M. (2003). Facets of dynamic positive affect: Differentiating joy, interest, and activation in the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 528–540. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.85.3.528

Fayard, J. V., Roberts, B. W., Robins, R. W., & Watson, D. (2012). Uncovering the affective core of conscientiousness: The role of self–conscious emotions. Journal of Personality, 80(1), 1–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467–6494.2011.00720.x

Frazier, T. W., Strauss, M. E., & Steinhauer, S. R. (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as an index of emotional response in young adults. Psychophysiology, 41(1), 75–83.

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Gençöz, T. (2000). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: A study of validity and reliability. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 15(46), 19–28.

Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2003). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299.

Grühn, D., Kotter–Grühn, D., & Röcke, C. (2010). Discrete affects across the adult lifespan: Evidence for multidimensionality and multidirectionality of affective experiences in young, middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 492–500.

Hill, R. D., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R., Houx, P. J., & Jolles, J. (2005). Positive affect and its relationship to free recall memory performance in a sample of older Dutch adults from the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(5), 429–435. doi:10.1002/gps.1300

Işik, S., & Üzbe, N. (2015). Personality traits and positive/negative affects: An analysis of meaning in life among adults. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(3), 587–595 doi:10.12738/estp.2015.3.2436

Joiner Jr, T. E., Sandin, B., Chorot, P., Lostao, L., & Marquina, G. (1997). Development and factor analytic validation of the SPANAS among women in Spain: (More) cross-cultural convergence in the structure of mood. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68(3), 600–615. doi:10.1207/s15327752

Jolly, J. B., Dyck, M. J., Kramer, T. A., & Wherry, J. N. (1994). Integration of positive and negative affectivity and cognitive content–specificity: Improved discrimination of anxious and depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(3), 544–552. doi:org/10.1037/0021–843X.103.3.544

Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4(1), 1–39. doi:10.1007/BF00844845

Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C. W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der "Positive and Negative Affect Schedule" (PANAS). Diagnostica, 42, 139–156.

Lang, P. J., Davis, M., & Öhman, A. (2000). Fear and anxiety: Animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61(3), 137–159. doi:10.1016/S0165–0327(00)00343–8

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76(5), 1001–1054. doi:10.1111/j.1467–6494.2008.00512.x

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2016). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO–100. Assessment, 1–15. doi:10.1177/1073191116659134

Lonigan, C. J., Hooe, E. S., David, C. F., & Kistner, J. A. (1999). Positive and negative affectivity in children: Confirmatory factor analysis of a two–factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 374–386. doi:10.1037/0022–006X.67.3.374

Mackinnon, A., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., & Rodgers, B. (1999). A short form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: Evaluation of factorial validity and invariance across demographic variables in a community sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(3), 405–416. doi:10.1016/S0191–8869(98)00251–7

Maples, M. F., Dupey, P., Torres–Rivera, E., & Phan, L. T. (2001). Ethnic diversity and the use of humor in counseling: Appropriate or inappropriate? Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(1), 53–60.

Merz, E. L., & Roesch, S. C. (2011). Modeling trait and state variation using multilevel factor analysis with PANAS daily diary data. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(1), 2–9. doi:doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.11.003

Mihić, LJ., Novović, Z., Čolović, P., & Smederevac, S. (2014). Serbian adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Its facets and second–order structure. Psihologija, 47(4), 393–414. doi:10.2298/PSI1404393M

Mihić, LJ., Novović, Z., Tovilović, S. i Jovanović, V. (2009). Aktivacija faceta PA i NA uz pomoć video indukcije. Neobjavljen materijal, Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Srbija.

Overton, P. G., Markland, F. E., Taggart, H. S., Bagshaw, G. L., & Simpson, J. (2008). Self–disgust mediates the relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and depressive symptomatology. Emotion, 8(3), 379. doi: 10.1037/1528–3542.8.3.379

Palomba, D., Sarlo, M., Angrilli, A., Mini, A., & Stegagno, L. (2000). Cardiac responses associated with affective processing of unpleasant film stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 36(1), 45–57.

Patrick, C. J., & Lavoro, S. A. (1997). Ratings of emotional response to pictorial stimuli: Positive and negative affect dimensions. Motivation and Emotion, 21(4), 297–321. doi:10.1023/A:1024432322584

Robles, R., & Páez, F. (2003). Estudio sobre la traducción al español y las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas de afecto positivo y negativo (PANAS). Salud Mental, 26(1), 69–75.

Rossi, V., & Pourtois, G. (2012b). Transient state-dependent fluctuations in anxiety measured using STAI, POMS, PANAS or VAS: a comparative review. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(6), 603–645. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2011.582948

Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1161–1178.

Schaefer, A., Nils, F., Sanchez, X., & Philippot, P. (2010). Assessing the effectiveness of a large database of emotion–eliciting films: A new tool for emotion researchers. Cognition and Emotion, 24(7), 1153–1172. doi:10.1080/02699930903274322

Schmukle, S. C., Egloff, B., & Burns, L. R. (2002). The relationship between positive and negative affect in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(5), 463–475. doi: 10.1016/S0092–6566(02)00007–7

Serafini, K., Malin–Mayer, B., Nich, C., Hunkele, K., & Carroll, K. M. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a heterogeneous sample of substance users. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 42(2), 203–212. doi:10.3109/00952990.2015.1133632

Smederevac, S., Mitrović, D., Čolović, P., & Nikolašević, Ž. (2014). Validation of the measure of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory constructs. Journal of Individual Differences, 35(1), 12–21. doi: 0.1027/1614–0001/a000121

Spielberg, C. D. (2001). Upitnik ljutnje kao stanja i osobine ličnosti – STAXI–2. Jastrebarsko: Naklada slap.

Stemmler, G., Heldmann, M., Pauls, C. A., & Scherer, T. (2001). Constraints for emotion specificity in fear and anger: The context counts. Psychophysiology, 38(2), 275–291. doi: 10.1017/S0048577201991668

Stevens, J. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Tellegen, A., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. Psychological Science, 10(4), 297–303. doi:10.1111/1467–9280.00157

Terracciano, A., McCrae, R. R., Hagemann, D., & Costa, P. T. (2003). Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect. Journal of Personality, 71(5), 669–704. doi:10.1111/1467–6494.7105001

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1992). On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five‐factor model. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 441–476. doi:10.1111/j.1467–6494.1992.tb00980.

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS–X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule–expanded form. Ames: The University of Iowa.

Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 219–235. doi:10.1037/0033–2909.98.2.219

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.54.6.1063

Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(5), 820–838.

Westermann, R., Spies, K., Stahl, G. K., & Hesse, F. W. (1996). Relative effectiveness and validity of mood induction procedures: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 557–580.

Zevon, M. A., & Tellegen, A. (1982). The structure of mood change: An idiographic/nomothetic analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(1), 111–122. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.43.1.111

Downloads

How to Cite

Drobnjaković, E., Dinić, B., & Mihić, L. (2017). DISTINCTION WITHIN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT: VALIDATION OF THE SERBIAN ADAPTATION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT SCHEDULE (PANAS). Primenjena Psihologija, 10(2), 203–225. https://doi.org/10.19090/pp.2017.2.203-225

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 > >>