THE ROLE OF PERFECTIONISM AND SELF-EFFICACY IN EXPLAINING TEST ANXIETY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Authors

  • Ana Kurtović Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
  • Jelena Baborac Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19090/pp.2017.2.147-163

Keywords:

perfectionism, self-efficacy, test anxiety, university students

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between perfectionism, self-efficacy, and test anxiety, specifically to examine which perfectionism dimensions predicted test anxiety and whether self-efficacy mediated these relationships. Participants were 2014 university students, and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Test Anxiety Inventory were used. The results have shown that test anxiety was positively correlated with non-adaptive dimensions of perfectionism (neurotic perfectionism and parental pressure) and negatively correlated with self-efficacy, while there were no significant correlations with adaptive dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards and organization). Furthermore, the results have shown that neurotic perfectionism and parental pressure predicted test anxiety. Finally, the results suggest that relations of neurotic perfectionism and personal standard with test anxiety were mediated by self-efficacy. 

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ashbaugh, A., Antony, M. M., Liss, A., Summerfeldt, L. J., McCabe, R. E., & Swinson, R. P. (2007). Changes in perfectionism following cognitive-behavioral treatment for social phobia. Depression and Anxiety, 24(3), 169–177. doi:10.1002/da.20219

Azevedo, M. H., Carvalho, B. S, Soares, M. J., Marques, M., Pereira, A. T., Maia, B., Gomes, A. A., & Macedo, A. (2010). Longitudinal study on perfectionism and sleep disturbance. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11(2), 476–485. doi:10.3109/15622970903304467

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. doi:10.1037//0033-295X.84.2.191

Bieling, P. J., Israeli, A. L., & Antony, M. M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(6), 1373–1385. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00235-6

Burns, D. D. (1980). The perfectionist’s script for self – defeat. Psychology today, 30, 34–52.

Cole, D. A., Jacquez, F. M., & Maschman, T. L. (2001). Social origins of depressive cognitions: A longitudinal study of self-perceived competence in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(4), 377–395.

Cox, R. H. (2005). Psihologija sporta. Jastrebarsko: Naklada slap.

Eum, K., & Rice, K. G. (2011). Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(2), 167–178. doi:10.1080/10615806.2010.488723

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C. M., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Resarch, 14(5), 449–469. doi:10.1007/BF01172967

Gnilka, P. B., Ashby, J. S., & Noble, C. M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a Coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427–436. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2012.00054.x

Hadjistavropoulos, H., Dash, H., Hadjistavropoulos, T., & Sullivan, T. (2007). Recurrent pain among university students: Contributions of self-efficacy and perfectionism to the pain experience. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 1081–1091. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.013

Hart, B. A., Gilner, F. H., Handal, P. J., & Gfeller, J. D. (1998). The relationship between perfectionism ans self-efficacy. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1), 109–113.

Hawkins, C. C., Watt, H. M. G., & Sinclair, K. E. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Frost Mutidimensional Perfectionism Scale with Australian adolescent girls: Clarification of multidimensionality and perfectionist typology. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(6), 1001–1022. doi:10.1177/0013164405285909

Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of counseling and development, 76(3), 317–324. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02548.x

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hewitt, P. L., Caeliana, C. F., Flett, G. F., Sherrya, S. B., Collins, L., & Flynna, C. A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations with depression, anxiety, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(6), 1049–1061. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00109-X

Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456–470. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.60.3.456

Ivanov, L., & Penezić, Z. (2002). Skala opće samoefikasnosti. U K. L. Grgin (Ur.), Zbirka psihologijskih skala i upitnika – Svezak 1 (str. 6–8). Zadar: Filozofski fakultet.

Kolić-Vehovec, S., & Rončević, B. (2002). Perfekcionizam, ispitna anksioznost i akademsko samopoimanje darovitih gimnazijalaca. Društvena istraživanja, 12(5), 679–02.

Lacković-Grgin, K. (2000). Stres u djece i adolescenata. Jastebarsko: Naklada Slap.

Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of testanxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975–978. doi:10.2466/pr0.1967.20.3.975

Locicero, K. A., & Ashby, J. S. (2013). Multidimensional perfectionism and self-reported self-efficacy in college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 15(2), 47–56. doi:10.1300/J035v15n02_06

McCarthy, J. M., & Goffin, R. D. (2005). Selection test anxiety: Exploring tension and fear of failure across the sexes in simulated selection scenarios. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(4), 282–295. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2005.00325.x

Mills, J. S., & Blankstein, K. R. (2000). Perfectionism, intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation, and motivated strategies for learning: A multidimensional analysis of university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1191–1204. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00003-9

Mohorić (2008). Automatske misli kod učenja i ispitna anksioznost kao odrednice subjektivnoga i objektivnoga akademskog postignuća studenata. Psihološke teme, 17(1), 1-14.

Mor, S., Day, H. I., & Flett, G. L. (1995). Perfectionism, control, and components of performance anxiety in professional artists. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(2), 207–225. doi:10.1007/BF02229695

Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 337–348. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00027-7

Nie, Y., Lau, S., & Liau, A. K. (2011). Role of academic self-efficacy in moderating the relation between task impotrance and test anxiety. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(6), 736–741.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2000). Academic procrastinators and perfectionistic tendencies among graduate students. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 15(5), 103–109.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Dayley, C. E. (1999). Perfectionism and statistics anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(6), 1089–1102. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00214-1

Robinson, C., & Snipes, K. (2009). Hope, optimism, and self-efficacy: A system of competence and control enhancing African American college students academic well-being. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 35(2), 16–26.

Santanello, A. W., & Gardner, F. L. (2007). The role of experiential avoidance in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and worry. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(3), 319–332. doi:10.1007/s10608-006-9000-6

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

Silgado, J., Timpano, K. R., Buckner, J. D., & Schmidt, N. B. (2010). Social anxiety and bulimic behaviors: The moderating role of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(5), 487–492. doi:10.1007/s10608-009-9278-2

Spielberger, C. D., & Vagg, P. R. (1995). Test anxiety: A transactional process model. In C. D. Spielberger & P. R. Vagg (Eds.), Test anxiety: Theory, assessment, treatment (pp. 3–14). Washington: Taylor & Francis.

Spielberger, C. D., Gonzalez, H. P., Taylor, C. J., Anton, E. D., Algaze, B., Ross, G. R., & Westberry, L. G. (1980). Manual for the Test Anxiety Inventory (“Test Attitude Inventory”). Redwood City, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Stoeber, J., Hutchfield, J., & Wood, K. V. (2008). Perfectionism, self-efficacy, and aspiration level: Differential effectsof perfectionistic striving and self-criticism after success and failure. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(4), 323–327. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.04.021

Stoeber, J. (2004). Dimensions of test anxiety: Relations to ways of coping with pre-exam anxiety and uncertainty. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 17, 213–226. doi:10.1080/10615800412331292615

Stoeber, J., & Joormann, J. (2001). Worry, procrastination, and perfectionism: Differentiating amount of worry, pathological worry, anxiety and depression. Cogntive Therapy and Research, 25(1), 49–60.

Stumpf, H., & Parker, W. D. (2000). A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(5), 837–852. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00141-5

Washelka, D., & Katz, R. C. (1999). Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 30(3), 191–198. doi:10.1016/S0005-7916(99)00024-5

Weiner, B. A., & Carton, J. S. (2012). Avoidant coping: A mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 632–636. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.009

Yondem, Z. D. (2007). Performance anxiety, dysfunctional attitudes, and gender in university music students. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(10), 1415–1426. doi:10.2224/sbp.2007.35.10.1415

Zubčić T., & Vulić-Prtorić A. (2008). Multidimenzionalna skala perfekcionizma (MPS-F). U V. Ćubela Adorić, I. Tucak, A. Proroković, & Z. Penezić (Ur.), Zbirka psihologijskih skala i upitnika – Svezak 4 (str. 23–35). Zadar: Filozofski fakultet.

Živčić-Bećirević, I., Juretić, J., & Miljević, M. (2009). Uloga metakognitivnih vjerovanja, automatskih misli za vrijeme učenja i atribucija uspjeha u objašnjenju ispitne anksioznosti i akademskog uspjeha studenata. Psihologijske teme, 18(1), 119–136.

Živčić-Bećirević, I. (2003). Uloga automatskih negativnih misli i ispitne anksioznosti u uspjehu studenata. Društvena istraživanja, 12(5), 703–720.

Downloads

How to Cite

Kurtović, A., & Baborac, J. (2017). THE ROLE OF PERFECTIONISM AND SELF-EFFICACY IN EXPLAINING TEST ANXIETY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. Primenjena Psihologija, 10(2), 147–163. https://doi.org/10.19090/pp.2017.2.147-163

Issue

Section

Articles