RAZVOJ FONOLOŠKE SVESNOSTI KOD DECE UZRASTA OD ŠEST DO OSAM GODINA

  • Slavica Golubović Fakultet za specijalnu edukaciju i rehabilitaciju, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Nevena Ječmenica Fakultet za specijalnu edukaciju i rehabilitaciju, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Siniša Subotić Katedra za psihologiju & Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci
  • Dubravka Kobac Predškolska ustanova ,,Čika Jova Zmaj“ u Beogradu
Ključne reči: deca tipičnog razvoja, fonološka svesnost, uzrasne razlike

Apstrakt

Cilj istraživanja je utvrđivanje nivoa razvijenosti elemenata fonološke svesnosti i uzajamnog odnosa tih elemenata kod dece tipičnog razvoja. Istraživanjem je obuhvaćeno 60-oro dece, oba pola (51.6% dečaka i 48.4% devojčica), uzrasta od šest (33.3%), sedam (38.3%) i osam (28.3%) godina. Za procenu fonološke svesnosti primenjen je revidirani FONT test, koji obuhvata osam tipova zadataka. Rezultati pokazuju generalno visoko postignuće dece na svim tipovima zadataka za procenu fonološke svesnosti (u rasponu od 73.3% do 90.8% uspešnosti). Međutim, moguće je diferencirati relativno lakše zadatke (spajanje slogova, prepoznavanje rime, slogovna segmentacija i identifikovanje početnog fonema) od relativno težih zadataka (identifikovanje završnog fonema, fonemska segmentacija, fonemska supstitucija početnog fonema i eliminacija početnog fonema). Teži tipovi zadataka su pokazali i međusobno snažniji intenzitet korelacije, dok su lakši tipovi zadataka slabije povezani sa ostalim zadacima u okviru testa (zbog suženog opsega raspona vrednosti, odnosno vrlo visokih prosečnih postignuća dece). Uzrasne razlike među decom su utvrđene samo na težim tipovima zadataka, dok su na lakšim zadacima već i šestogodišnjaci ostvarili postignuće kao i deca uzrasta sedam i osam godina. Rezultati su pokazali da se fonološke sposobnosti razvijaju i stiču do uzrasta od sedam godina. Pol, kao i interakcija pola i uzrasta, nisu predstavljali značajan izvor razlika u postignuću dece na zadacima fonološke svesnosti. Dobijeni nalazi sugerišu da je prilikom ispitivanja fonološke svesnosti kod dece tipičnog razvoja, već na uzrastu od šest godina dovoljno meriti samo postignuće na četiri tipa zadataka, koji su u istraživanju identifikovani kao teži

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