CORRELATION OF CREATIVITY AND EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE: DO WE GET MORE CREATIVE BY OBSERVING DISTURBING IMAGES?
Relations between creativity, different dimensions of emotional experience (valence and arousal), familiarity of content, and reaction time were examined in this study. An experiment was conducted with 38 students from the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in Belgrade, in which the International Affective Picture System database (IAPS) was used for construction of visual stimuli samples. Initailly, ten photographs were selected from a database, so that their valence and arousal varied systematically. Students were exposed to the photos and were asked to rate the familiarity of their content. After that, 25 superimposed visual stimuli were prepared by overlapping the ten selected photographs, and presented in the second session when the subjects were asked to generate the best title for each of them, with reaction time being recorded. Creativity of titles was assessed by calculating a coefficient of creativity that was specifically designed for research purposes. Regression analysis revealed that valence and reaction time were very good predictors of creativity (R2 = .70, F = 7.94, p < .05). Valence and creativity were in negative correlation (ß = -.62, t = -2.92, p <.05), while reaction time was a positive predictor of creativity (ß = .64, t = 3.25, p < .05). A factor analysis revealed the three factors that explained 94.51% of variance, of which two were highly loaded with creativity. Results expand insights on the role of emotional experience in creative production suggesting that their connection could be explained by valence and time - variables which underlie two relatively independent processes of creative thinking.
Baas, M., De Dreu, C.K., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134, 779–806. doi:10.1037/a0012815
Ball, O. E., & Torrance, E. P. (1980). Effectiveness of new materials developed for training the streamlined scoring of the TTCT, figural A and B forms. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 14, 199–203. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1980.tb00243.x
Baumeister, R. F., Dale, K., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). Freudian defense mechanisms and empirical findings in modern psychology: Reaction formation, projection, displacement, undoing, isolation, sublimation, and denial. Journal of Personality, 66, 1081–1124. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00043
Benjafield, J. G. (1997). Cognition (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199710)11:5<457::AID-ACP488>3.0.CO;2-1
Bergler, E. (1945). On a five-layer structure in sublimation. The Psychoanalytic Quaterly, 14, 76–97.
Bush, S. I., & Geer, J. H. (2001). Implicit and explicit memory of neutral, negative emotional, and sexual information. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30, 615–631. doi:10.1023/a:1011915001416
Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Larsen, J. T., Poehlmann, K. M., & Ito, T. A. (2000). The psychophysiology of emotion. In R. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), The handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 173–191). New York: Guilford Press.
Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268–294. doi:10.1037/0096-34126.96.36.1998
Domino, G., Short, J., Evans, A., & Romano, P. (2002). Creativity and ego defense mechanisms: Some exploratory empirical evidence. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 17–25. doi:10.1207/S15326934CRJ1401_2
Farley, F. (1985). Psychobiology and cognition: An individual differences model. In J. Strelan, F. Farley, & A. Gale (Eds.), The biological basis of personality and behavior (Vol. 11, pp. 1–36). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Feist, G. (1998). Affect in artistic and scientific creativity. In S. Russ (Ed.), Affect, creative experience, and psychological adjustment (pp. 93–108). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. doi:10.4324/9781315784557
Festinger, L. (1962). Cognitive dissonance. Scientific American, 207, 93–106. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1062-93
Forgas, J. P. (2002). Toward understanding the role of affect in social thinking and behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 90–102. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1301_03
Freud, S. (1908). Creative writers and day-dreaming. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e417472005-225
George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2002). Understanding when bad moods foster creativity and good ones don’t: The role of context and clarity of feelings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 687–697. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.687
Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454. doi:10.1037/h0063487
Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hirt, E. R., Melton, R. J., McDonald, H. E., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Processing goals, task interest, and the mood–performance relationship: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 245–261. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Houston, J. P., & Mednick, S. A. (1963). Creativity and the need for novelty. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 137–141. doi:10.1037/h0043197
Hudson, L. (1975). Human beings. The psychology of human behavior. New York: Anchor.
Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 522–539). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/0470013494.ch25
Isen, A. (1998). On the relationships between affect and creative problem solving. In S. Russ (Ed.), Affect, creative experience, and psychological adjustments (pp. 3–17). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. doi:10.4324/9781315784557
Isen, A. M. (1993). Positive affect and decision making. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 261–277). New York: Guilford.
Isen, A. M., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Positive affect as a factor in organizational behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 13, 1–53.
Izard, C. E. (2010). The many meanings/aspects of emotion: Definitions, functions, activation, and regulation. Emotion Review, 2, 363–370. doi:10.1177/1754073910374661
Jamison, K. R. (1993). Touched with fire: Manic depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: Free Press. doi:10.4135/9781483349985.n388
Jamison, K. R. (1995). Manic-depressive illness and creativity. Scientific American, 272, 62–67. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0295-62
Jovanović, V., Matić, I., Milošević, M. i Ristić, I. (2015). Pic rotator 1.0. [Computer software]. Beograd: Fakultet dramskih umetnosti Univerzitet umetnosti u Beogradu.
Kensinger, E. A. (2004). Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 15, 241–251. doi:10.1515/revneuro.2004.15.4.241
Kensinger, E. A., & Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 3310–3315. doi:10.1073/pnas.0306408101
Kim, E., Zeppenfeld, V., & Cohen, D. (2013). Sublimation, culture, and creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 639–666. doi: 10.1037/a0033487639
Kim, K. H. (2006). Is creativity unidimensional or multidimensional? Analyses of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 251–259. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1803_2
Klein, M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 16, 145–174.
Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. New York: Macmillan.
Kris, E. (1952). Psychoanalytic exploration in art. New York: International Universities Press.
Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.
Lubart, T. I., & Getz, I. (1997). Emotion, metaphor, and the creative process. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 285–301. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1004_1
Martin, L. L., Ward, D. W., Achee, J. W., & Wyer, R. S. (1993). Mood as input: People have to interpret the motivational implications of their moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 317–326. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Martindale, C. (2005). Biological biases of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 137–152). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511807916.009
Martindale, C., & Greenough, J. (1973). The differential effects of increased arousal on creative and intellectual performance. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 123, 329–335. doi:10.1080/00221325.1973.10532692
Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220–232. doi:10.1037/h0048850
Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). The basic emotional impact of environments. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 283–301. doi:10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.113
Milošević, M. i Ristić, I. (2016). Nov metodološki pristup studijama kreativnosti. In Medias Res časopis filozofije medija, 5, 1237–1250.
Mraz, W., & Runco, M. A. (1994). Suicide ideation and creative problem solving. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 24, 38–47.
Nairne, J. S., Thompson, S. R., & Pandeirada, J. N. S. (2007). Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 263–273. doi:10.1037/0278-7318.104.22.1683
Ohman, A., & Mineka, S. (2001). Fears, phobia, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 108, 483–522. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.108.3.483
Posner J., Russell J. A., & Peterson B. S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 715–734. doi: 10.1017/S0954579405050340
Rotenberg, A. (2010). Kreativnost i ludilo. Beograd: Clio.
Rothenberg, A. (1986). Artistic creation as stimulated by superimposed versus combined-composite visual images. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 370–381. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240
Rothenberg, A. (1999). Homospatial process. In M. Runco & S. Pritzer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity (Vol. 1, pp. 831–835). London: Academic Press.
Runco, M. A. (1998). Tension, adaptability, and creativity. In S. W. Russ (Ed.), Affect, creative experience, and psychological adjustment (pp. 165–194). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel. doi:10.4324/9781315784557
Russ, S. (1993). Affect and creativity: The role of affect ad play in the creative process. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. doi:10.4324/9780203772621
Russell, J. A., & Mehrabian, A. (1977). Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 273–294. doi:10.1016/0092-6566(77)90037-x
Shapiro, P. J., & Weisberg, R. W. (1999). Creativity and bipolar diathesis: Common behavioral and cognitive components. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 741–762. doi:10.1080/026999399379069
Showers, C., & Cantor, N. (1985). Social cognition: A look at motivated strategies. Annual review of psychology, 36, 275–305. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.001423
Torrance, E. P. (1990). The Torrance tests of creative thinking norms – technical manual figural (streamlined) Forms A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service. Review of Psychology, 36, 275–305.
Vaillant, G. E., & Vaillant, C. O. (1990). Determinants and consequencesof creativity in a cohort of gifted women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 607–616. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990. tb00234.x
Vosburg, S. K. (1998a). The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent thinking performance. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 165–172. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1102_6
Vosburg, S. K. (1998b). Mood and the quantity and quality of ideas. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 315–324. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1104_5
Vosburg, S., & Kaufmann, G. (1998). Mood and creativity research: The view from a conceptual organizing perspective. In S. Russ (Ed.), Affect, creative experience, and psychological adjustment (pp. 19–39). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. doi:10.4324/9781315784557
Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Finke, R. A. (2005). Creative cognition. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 189–212). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511807916.012
Wild, C. (1965). Creativity and adaptive regression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 161–169. doi:10.1037/h0022404
Wisniewski, E. J. (1996). Construal and similarity in conceptual combination. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 434–453. doi:10.1006/jmla.1996.0024