• Dino Krupić


Self-confidence, motivation, and performance outcome are vital for goal-directed behaviour. However, people do not react to a positive and negative performance in the same way. This study examines (a) the relationship between self-confidence and approach/avoidance motivation, and (b) how approach- and avoidance-oriented individuals respond to a performance outcome. The study was conducted on 93 participants. The first part of the study examined the relationship between self-confidence and approach/avoidance motivation within Reinforcement sensitivity theory, while the second part examined changes in motivation and self-efficiency in overconfident, avoidance- and approach-oriented individuals, following the positive and negative performance. Approach and avoidance tendencies were assessed by Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ) and Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Correlational analysis showed that the Behavioural Approach System (BAS) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) correlated positively, while Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) correlated negatively with confidence. In addition, moderated regression analysis showed that (a) high BIS, SP and SR individuals were strongly demotivated following the negative performance, (b) while overconfident and high BAS individuals maintained their initial motivation. On the other hand, motivation in high SR, but not in the high BAS and overconfident individuals, increased after the positive performance. None of the scales predicted the change of self-efficacy either after the positive or negative performance. High BAS and low BIS in overconfident individuals may explain why they strive more toward the final goal despite drawbacks. The theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed in the paper.

Biografija autora

Dino Krupić

Odsjek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta J.J. Strossmayera u Osijeku


Aluja, A., & Blanch, A. (2011). Neuropsychological behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral approach system (BAS) assessment: A shortened sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward questionnaire version (SPSRQ–20). Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 628–636. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.608760
Anderson, C., Brion, S., Moore, D. A., & Kennedy, J. A. (2012). A status-enhancement account of overconfidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 718–735. doi:10.1037/a0029395
Barber, B. M., & Odean, T. (2000). Trading is hazardous to your wealth: The common stock investment performance of individual investors. The Journal of Finance, 55, 773–806. doi:10.2139/ssrn.219228
Bjørnebekk, G. (2007). Reinforcement sensitivity theory and major motivational and self-regulatory processes in children. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1980–1990. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.010
Buratti, S., & Allwood, C. (2012). Improved realism of confidence for an episodic memory event. Judgment and Decision Making, 7, 590–601. Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/11/111121a/jdm111121a.html
Campbell, W. K., Goodie, A. S., & Foster, J. D. (2004). Narcissism, confidence, and risk attitude. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17, 297–311. doi:10.1002/bdm.475
Chen, G., Crossland, C., & Luo, S. (2015). Making the same mistake all over again: CEO overconfidence and corporate resistance to corrective feedback. Strategic Management Journal, 36, 1513–1535. doi:10.1002/smj.2291
Corr, P. J. (2008). Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST): Introduction. In P. J. Corr (Ed), The Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality (pp. 1–28). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511819384.002
Corr, P. J. (2016). Reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality questionnaires: Structural survey with recommendations. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 60–64. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.045
Corr, P. J., & Krupić, D. (2017). Motivating personality: Approach, avoidance, and their conflict. In A. Elliot (Ed.), Advances in Motivation Science, Volume 4 (pp. 39–90). London: Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adms.2017.02.003
Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Overconfidence produces underachievement: Inaccurate self evaluations undermine students’ learning and retention. Learning and Instruction, 22, 271–280. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.003
Dweck, C. S., & Elliott, E. S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P. Mussen, & E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Socialisation, Personality and Social Development (Vol. 4, pp. 643–691). New York: Wiley. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-373951-3.00002-8
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–189. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3403
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2×2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 804–818. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.5.804
Foster, J. D., & Brennan, J. C. (2012). Narcissism, the agency model, and approach-avoidance motivation. In W. K., Campbell & J. D., Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder: Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments (pp. 89–100). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1002/9781118093108.ch8
Foster, J. D., & Trimm, R. F. (2008). On being eager and uninhibited: Narcissism and approach-avoidance motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1004–1017. doi:10.1177/0146167208316688
Foster, J. D., Reidy, D. E., Misra, T. A., & Goff, J. S. (2011). Narcissism and stock market investing: Correlates and consequences of cocksure investing. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 816–821. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.002
Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2003). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system (No. 33). Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001
Grossman, Z., & Owens, D. (2012). An unlucky feeling: Overconfidence and noisy feedback. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 84, 510–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2012.08.006
Guinote, A. (2017). How power affects people: Activating, wanting, and goal seeking. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 353–381. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044153
Ilies, R., Judge, T. A., & Wagner, D. T. (2010). The influence of cognitive and affective reactions to feedback on subsequent goals. European Psychologist, 15, 121–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000011
Kilduff, G. J., & Galinsky, A. D. (2013). From the ephemeral to the enduring: How approach-oriented mindsets lead to greater status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 816–831. doi:10.1037/a0033667
Kim, D. Y., & Lee, J. H. (2011). Effects of the BAS and BIS on decision-making in a gambling task. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1131–1135. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.041
Klayman, J., & Soll, J. (1999). Overconfidence: It depends on how, what, and whom you ask. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79, 216–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1999.2847
Krupić, D., & Corr, P. J. (2017). Moving forward with the BAS: Toward neurobiology of multidimensional model of approach motivation. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Krupić, D., & Corr, P. J. (2014). Individual differences in emotion elicitation in university examinations: A quasi-experimental study. Personality and Individual Differences, 71, 176–180. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.001
Krupić, D., Corr, P. J., Ručević, S., Križanić, V., & Gračanin, A. (2016). Five Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) of personality questionnaires: Comparison, validity, and generalization. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 19–24. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.012
Krupić, D., Gračanin, A., & Corr, P. J. (2016). The evolution of the Behavioural Approach System (BAS): Cooperative and competitive resource acquisition strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 223–227. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.044
Larrick, R. P., Burson, K. A., & Soll, J. B. (2007). Social comparison and confidence: When thinking you’re better than average predicts overconfidence (and when it does not). Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102, 76–94. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2006.10.002
Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading questions and the eyewitness report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 560–572. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(75)90023-7
Malmendier, U., & Tate, G. (2005). Does overconfidence affect corporate investment? CEO overconfidence measures revisited. European Financial Management, 11, 649–659. doi:10.1111/j.1354-7798.2005.00302.x
Miller, T. M., & Geraci, L. (2011). Unskilled but aware: Reinterpreting overconfidence in low-performing students. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 502–506. doi:10.1037/a0021802
Moore, D. A., & Healy, P. J. (2008). The trouble with overconfidence. Psychological Review, 115, 502–517. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.502
Pallier, G., Wilkinson, R., Danthiir, V., Kleitman, S., Knezevic, G., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). The role of individual differences in the accuracy of confidence judgments. Journal of General Psychology, 129, 257–299. doi:10.1080/00221300209602099
Patel, P. C., & Cooper, D. (2014). The harder they fall, the faster they rise: Approach and avoidance focus in narcissistic CEOs. Strategic Management Journal, 35, 1528–1540. doi:10.1002/smj.2162
Pintrich, P. (2000). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 92–104. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1017
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Sadi, R., Asl, H. G., Rostami, M. R., Gholipour, A., & Gholipour, F. (2011). Behavioral finance: The explanation of investors’ personality and perceptual biases effects on financial decisions. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 3, 234–241. doi:10.5539/ijef.v3n5p234
Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46, 26–47. doi:10.1080/00461520.2011.538646
Sheldon, K. M., Gunz, A., Nichols, C. P., & Ferguson, Y. (2010). Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: Overestimating the rewards, underestimating the costs. Journal of Personality, 78, 149–178. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00612.x
Sideridis, G. D., & Kaplan, A. (2011). Achievement goals and persistence across tasks: The roles of failure and success. The Journal of Experimental Education, 79, 429–451. doi:10.1080/00220973.2010.539634
Smederevac, S., Mitrović, D., Čolović, P., & Nikolašević, Ž. (2014). Validation of the measure of revised Reinforcement sensitivity theory constructs. Journal of Individual Differences, 35, 12–21. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000121
Stanton, S. J., Beehner, J. C., Saini, E. K., Kuhn, C. M., & LaBar, K. S. (2009). Dominance, politics, and physiology: Voters' testosterone changes on the night of the 2008 United States presidential election. PLoS One, 4, e7543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007543
Stone, D. N. (1994). Overconfidence in initial self-efficacy judgments: Effects on decision processes and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59, 452–474. doi:10.1006/obhd.1994.1069
Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Moltó, J., & Caseras, X. (2001). The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray's anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 837–862. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00183-5
Williams, E. F., & Gilovich, T. (2008). Do people really believe they are above average? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1121–1128. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.01.002
18. 09. 2017.
Broj časopisa