• Dino Krupić
Keywords: Reinforcement sensitivity theory, motivation, self-efficiency, performance, experiment


Self-confidence, motivation, and performance outcome are vital for goal-directed behaviour. However, people do not react to a positive and negative performance in the same way. This study examines (a) the relationship between self-confidence and approach/avoidance motivation, and (b) how approach- and avoidance-oriented individuals respond to a performance outcome. The study was conducted on 93 participants. The first part of the study examined the relationship between self-confidence and approach/avoidance motivation within Reinforcement sensitivity theory, while the second part examined changes in motivation and self-efficiency in overconfident, avoidance- and approach-oriented individuals, following the positive and negative performance. Approach and avoidance tendencies were assessed by Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ) and Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Correlational analysis showed that the Behavioural Approach System (BAS) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) correlated positively, while Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) correlated negatively with confidence. In addition, moderated regression analysis showed that (a) high BIS, SP and SR individuals were strongly demotivated following the negative performance, (b) while overconfident and high BAS individuals maintained their initial motivation. On the other hand, motivation in high SR, but not in the high BAS and overconfident individuals, increased after the positive performance. None of the scales predicted the change of self-efficacy either after the positive or negative performance. High BAS and low BIS in overconfident individuals may explain why they strive more toward the final goal despite drawbacks. The theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed in the paper.

Author Biography

Dino Krupić

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences,

University of J. J. Strossmayer in Osijek


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