MORALNA DISONANCA NA RADU I PSIHOFIZIČKO ZDRAVLJE ZAPOSLENIH

  • Nebojša Majstorović
  • Božana Vidaković
Ključne reči: etička disonanca, korupcija, psihofizičko zdravlje, radna etika, zaposleni

Apstrakt

Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi učestalost javljanja moralne disonance na radnom mestu kao i njene moguće posledice po psiho-fizičko zdravlje kod uposlenika. Etička disonanca definisana je kao stanje nastalo usled nesklada odluke ili akcije uposlenika i etičkih standarda važećih u organizaciji, pre svega, stanja izazvanog usled neetičnih zahteva postavljenih uposleniku od strane menadžmenta. Na uzorku od 311 uposlenika oba pola, zaposlenih u privatnom i javnom vladinom sektoru (56.7% u javnom vladinom sektoru), različitog obrazovnog nivoa, različite starosti i radnog staža, primenjene su mere psiho-fizičkog zdravlja, mere učestalosti etičke disonance na radu i upitnik demografskih karakteristika. Rezultati pokazuju da od 311 ispitanika njih 72% izveštava da je u poslednjih godinu dana barem jednom bilo u stanju etičke disonance, tako da su analize relacija merenih konstrukata sprovedene na ovih 224 uposlenika. Faktorizacijom upitnika SUED2R nađeno je da se mere etičke disonance, prema vrsti neetičnog zahteva, razvrstavaju u tri indikatora: laganje u korist organizacije, uznemiravanje drugih i podržavanje pogrešnih ljudi. Utvrđeno je da je učestalost etičke disonance značajno veća u privatnom nego u državnom sektoru, da povećana učestalost disonance na radu (posebno pritiska da se uznemiravaju drugi) kovarira sa povećanom učestalošću simptoma poremećaja svih merenih aspekata zdravlja. Zaključeno je da pritisak ka neetičnom (koruptivnom) ponašanju i nerazvijenost mehanizama zaštite od takvog pritiska u organizacijama verovatno doprinose narušavanju psiho-fizičkog zdravlja uposlenika. Značaj ovog istraživanja je u tome što je, po prvi put, jasno utvrđeno da je pritisak ka koruptivnom ponašanju povezan sa zdravljem uposlenika.

Biografije autora

Nebojša Majstorović

Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu

Božana Vidaković

Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu

Reference

Adler, N., & Matthews, K. (1994). Health psychology: Why do some people get sick and some stay well? Annual Review of Psychology, 45(1), 229–259. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.001305

Ashforth, B., & Anand V. (2003). The normalization of corruption in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior 25, 1–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0191-3085(03)25001-2

Aquino, K., & Reed, I. I. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1423

Ayal, S., & Gino, F. (2011). Honest rationales for dishonest behavior. In M. Mikulincer and P. R. Shaver (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Morality: Exploring the Causes of Good and Evil (pp.149–166). American Psychological Association.

Bano, B., & Jha, R. K. (2012). Organizational role stress among public and private sector employees: a comparative study. The Lahore Journal of Business, 1(1), 23–36. https://doi.org/10.35536/ljb.2012.v1.i1.a2

Barkan, R., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2015). Ethical dissonance, justifications, and moral behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6(DEC), 157–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.08.001

Barkan, R., Ayal, S., Gino, F., & Ariely, D. (2012). The pot calling the kettle black: distancing response to ethical dissonance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 757–773. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027588

Bazerman, M. H., & Tenbrunsel, A. E. (2011). Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What’s Right and What to Do About It. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400837991

Burchard, M. (2011). Ethical dissonance and response to destructive leadership: A proposed model. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4(1), 154–176.

Coldwell, D. A., Billsberry, J., Van Meurs, N., & Marsh, P. J. (2008). The effects of person–organization ethical fit on employee attraction and retention: Towards a testable explanatory model. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 611–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9371-y

Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., & Vahtera, J. (2002). Organizational justice: Evidence of a new psychosocial predictor of health. American Journal of Public Health, 92(1), 105–108. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.92.1.105

Evans, C., Ehlers, A., Mezey, G., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Intrusive memories in perpetrators of violent crime: Emotions and cognitions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(1), 134–144. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.75.1.134

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford University Press.

Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(2), 203–211. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0041593

Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P.P. (eds.). (1995). The Relationship Between Trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Physical Health. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Giacalone, R. A., & Promislo, M. D. (2014). Handbook of Unethical Work Behavior: Implications for Individual Well-Being: Implications for Individual Well-Being. Routledge.

Giacalone, R. A., & Promislo, M. D. (2010). Unethical and unwell: Decrements in well-being and unethical activity at work. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 275–297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0083-3

Hemingway, H., & Marmot, M. (1999). Psychosocial factors in the etiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease: Systematic review of prospective cohort studies. British Medical Journal, 318(5–6), 1460–1467. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7196.1460

Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7(2), 113–136. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1989.7.2.113

Kolarski, M. (2019). Značaj etičke klime i nivoa izgaranja u radu za učestalost simptoma poremećaja psiho-fizičkog zdravlja zaposlenih ⦋The importance of ethical work climate and burnout level for employeesʼ psycho-phyisical health⦌. Unpublished master thesis. Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad.

Landrine, H., Klonoff, E. A., Corral, I., Fernandez, S., & Roesch, S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(1), 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-005-9029-0

Lee, D. J., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Jenkins, C. D., & Croog, S. H. (1992). Relation of hostility to medication adherence, symptom complaints, and blood pressure reduction in a clinical field trial of antihypertensive medication. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36(2), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(92)90027-y

Majstorović, N. (2011). Skala psiho-fizičkog zdravlja (SPFZ-1) ⦋The Psycho-Physical Health Scale⦌ (Unpublished material). Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad.

Majstorović, N. (2012a). Korupcija: Uzroci, ekspanzija i intervencija ⦋Corruption: Causes, expansion and intervention⦌. Akademska knjiga.

Majstorović, N. (2012b). Istraživačke metode i tehnike u industrijskoj/organizacijskoj psihologiji ⦋Research methods and techniques in Industrial/organizational psychology⦌. Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad.

Majstorović, N. (2020). Skala učestalosti etičke disonance, redukovano (SUEDR2) ⦋The Ethical Dissonance Scale⦌ (Unpublished material). Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad.

Moore, S., Grunberg, L., & Greenberg, E. (2004). Repeated downsizing contact: The effects of similar and dissimilar layoff experiences on work and well-being outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(3), 247–257. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.9.3.247

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., & Bernardy, N. C. (2002). Research on posttraumatic stress disorder: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and assessment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 877–889. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10064

Srivastava, A. K., & Krishna, A. (1992). Employees' Job Involvement and Mental Health in Public and Private Sector Organizations: A Comparative Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 28(1), 62–70. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3315081

Suinn, R. M. (2001). The terrible twos—anger and anxiety: Hazardous to your health. American Psychologist, 56(1), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.56.1.27

Zapf, D., Knorz, C., & Kulla, M. (1996). On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 215–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414856
Objavljeno
09. 10. 2020.
Broj časopisa
Sekcija
Članci