DEČJI CRTEŽI KAO TRIJAŽNO SREDSTVO ZA PROCENU NEGATIVNE EMOCIONALNOSTI KOD DECE IZBEGLICA

  • Jelena Sokić Departman za psihologiju, Fakultet za sport i turizam, EDUCONS Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Dušanka Đurović Departman za psihologiju, Fakultet za sport i turizam, EDUCONS Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Mikloš Biro Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
Ključne reči: crteži, ekspresivne strategije, izbeglička deca, trauma indikatori

Apstrakt

Psiholozi koji rade sa ljudima u krizi suočavaju se sa problemom nedostatka dijagnostičkog instrumentarijuma koji može brzo i efikasno ukazati na indikatore traumatskog iskustva, čime bi se omogućila blagovremena i na pravi način osmišljena intervencija. Taj problem je posebno naglašen kod dece, odnosno, kod su- bjekata sa kojima je otežana verbalna komunikacija (npr. zbog nepoznavanja jezika), kao i kod ljudi u pokretu. Autori ovog rada bili su deo psihološkog interventnog tima na tzv. ,,Balkanskoj ruti” i suočili su se sa populacijom u krizi, koja je imala sve napred navedene odlike. Iz tog razloga, sprovedeno je istraživanje čiji je cilj bio da registruje moguće indirektne indikatore traume u spontanim crtežima dece izbeglica. Koristeći izražajne strategije koje deca koriste kako bi prikazala raspoloženje u svojim crteži- ma, fokusiralismo se na moguće pokazatelje traume. Od srpske dece iz domicilne populacije formirana je kontrolna grupa istog uzrasta kao i u grupi izbeglica (5 - 9 godina). Ukupno je prikuplje- no 464 crteža na kojima je primenjena analiza sadržaja i analiza Pickardovih ekspresivnih strategija. Analiza sadržaja je pokazala različite sadržajno specifične kategorije u odnosu na posmatrane grupe, pri čemu se kategorija nasilja i rata pojavljuje isključivo na crtežima u izbegličkoj grupi i korišćena je kao jedan od pokazate- lja traume. Dalja analiza je pokazala da je negativno raspoloženje prikazano složenijim i detaljnijim crtežima u obe grupe. Literalna ekspresivna strategija bila je specifična za izbegličku grupu, dok su različiti obrasci neliteralnih ekspresivnih strategija prepoznati kao indikatori raspoloženja u obe grupe. Nalazi ukazuju na to da se spontani dečiji crteži mogu koristiti kao trijažni alat za procenu emocionalnog stanja dece izbeglica i da imaju više prednosti u odnosu na druge dijagnostičke instrumente – dobijaju se brzo, spontano i ne dovode do retraumatizacije.

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