ISTRAŽIVANJE MOGUĆNOSTI ZA GRAMATIČKO PRIMOVANJE VIZUELNO PRIKAZANIH REČI POMOĆU ERP-a

  • Vanja Ković Laboratorija za neurokogniciju i primenjenu kogniciju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Platon Sovilj † Odsek za energetiku, elektroniku i komunikacije, Fakultet tehničkih nauka, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Dejan Lalović Laboratorija za neurokogniciju i primenjenu kogniciju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu
Ključne reči: gramatičko primovanje, odball paradigma, ERP

Apstrakt

U potrazi za optimalnim metodom proučavanja efekata gramatičkog konteksta na obradu pojedinačnih reči, izveli smo istraživanje kojim smo pokazali da u jednostavnom "odball" zadatku sa vizuelnim prikazivanjem ispitanici čitaju i jezički obrađuju obe reči u simultano prikazanim parovima. Karakteristike ERP "odball" paradigme dopuštaju pretpostavku da će parovi reči pobuditi potencijal P300, te da će fine razlike između potencijala evociranih gramatički saglasnim i gramatički neutralnim parovima ukazati na svojstva njihove kognitivne obrade. Imenica i glagol upareni su sa saglasnim predlogom, odnosno sa ličnom zamenicom, radi kreiranja gramatički ograničavajućeg konteksta, ili sa gramatički neutralnim veznikom radi kreiranja slobodnog konteksta. Takvi stimulusi prikazani su u "odball" paradigmi sa dva stimulusa. Glavni ishod našeg eksperimenta je da su odabrani parovi reči pobudili jasan potencijal P300 u tri od četiri eksperimentalne situacije. Interesantno je da je u svakoj od tih situacija P300 dostigao vrhunac tek nakon 400 ms, što je otklon koje se približava gornjoj granici uobičajenog javljanja P300 i smatra se obeležjem semantičke obrade (Polich, 2007). Ovakav rezultat pokazuje da su ispitanici pročitali i jezički obradili obe reči u parovima. Naši nalazi sugerišu da u cilju proučavanja efekata gramatičkog konteksta na obradu vizuelno prikazanih reči standardni postupak primovanja, u kojem reči-primovi prethode prikazu reči-meta, nije nužan. U najmanju ruku može se zaključiti da postupak jednovremenog prikazivanja reči korišćen u ovoj studiji, uz zadatak čitanja u sebi, može predstavljati dopunu ili zamenu postupka primovanja u istraživanjima delovanja gramatičkog konteksta na obradu pojedinačnih reči, budući da je poznato da postupak primovanja nosi sa sobom metodološke teškoće.

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