• Nevena Berat Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Dragana Jelić Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu
  • Boris Popov Odsek za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu


Burnout is most commonly defined as a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion caused by long-term involvement in emotionally demanding situations. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a recently-developed public domain questionnaire designed to measure burnout in three domains: personal, work-related, and client-related. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Work Burnout (WB) scale from the CBI and its relationships with various relevant constructs. 352 Serbian employees from two different samples completed several instruments assessing work burnout, distress, (ir)rational beliefs, turnover intentions, and job satisfaction. Results showed that the WB had a two-dimensional factorial structure (work exhaustion and work frustration), with acceptable fit indices using CFA, and excellent internal consistency. Moreover, the scale (and both dimensions) meaningfully correlated with distress, irrational beliefs, job satisfaction, and intentions to leave the organization. These findings indicate that the WB is a valid instrument to use with employees across different occupations and could be particularly useful when researchers want to quickly and efficiently assess emotional burnout. Also, the scale may be used as a short two-dimensional scale for measuring two distinct aspects of burnout, work frustration and work exhaustion. Some limitations of the study and the instrument itself have also been highlighted and discussed.


Ahola, K., Kivimäki, M., Honkonen, T., Virtanen, M., Koskinen, S., Vahtera, J., & Lönnqvist, J. (2008). Occupational burnout and medically certified sickness absence: A population-based study of Finnish employees. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 185–193. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.06.022

Arandjelovic, M., Ilic, I., & Jovic, S. (2010). Burnout and the quality of life of workers in food industry: A pilot study in Serbia. Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 67, 705–711. doi:10.2298/VSP1009705A

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83–104. doi:10.1002/hrm.20004

Beckstead, J. W. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory among Florida nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39, 785–792. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(02)00012-3

Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.

Biggs, A., & Brough, P. (2006). A test of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and psychological engagement. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58(Suppl.), 114.

Borritz, M., Rugulies, R., Christensen, K. B., Villadsen, E., & Kristensen, T. S. (2006). Burnout as a predictor of self-reported sickness absence among human service workers: Prospective findings from three year follow up of the PUMA study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63, 98–106. doi:10.1136/oem.2004.019364

Bostic, T. J., Rubio, D. M., & Hood, M. (2000). A validation of the Subjective Vitality Scale using structural equation modeling. Social Indicators Research, 52, 313–324. doi:10.1023/A:1007136110218

Brookings, J. B., Bolton, B., Brown, C. E., & McEvoy, A. (1985). Self-reported job burnout among female human service professionals. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 6, 143–150. doi:10.1002/job.4030060205

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 1−9). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Chen, F., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Paxton, P. (2008). An empirical evaluation of the use of fixed cutoff points in RMSEA test statistic in structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 36, 462–494. doi:10.1177/0049124108314720

Chiu, S. F., & Tsai, M. C. (2006). Relationships among burnout, job involvement, and organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 140, 517–530. doi:10.3200/JRLP.140.6.517-530

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 160–169. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.160

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Vardakou, I., & Kantas, A. (2003). The convergent validity of two burnout instruments: A multitrait-multimethod analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 19, 12–23. doi:10.1027//1015-5759.19.1.12

Di Benedetto, M., & Swadling, M. (2014). Burnout in Australian psychologists: Correlations with work-setting, mindfulness and self-care behaviours. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 19, 705–715. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.861602

Dignam, J. T., Barrera, M. Jr., & West, S. G. (1986). Occupational stress, social support, and burnout among correctional officers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 177–193. doi:10.1007/BF00911820

Dormann, C., & Kaiser, D. M. (2002). Job conditions and customer satisfaction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 257–283. doi:10.1080/13594320244000166

Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., Gil-Monte, P. R., & Grau-Alberola, E. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI): Adaptation and validation in a Portuguese-speaking sample. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 63, 33–40. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2012.08.003

Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30, 159–165. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x

Galanakis, M., Moraitou, M., Garivaldis, F. J., & Stalikas, A. (2009). Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in Greek midwives. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 5, 52–70. doi:10.5964/ejop.v5i4.240

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). Factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) among Spanish professionals. Revista de Saúde Pública, 39, 1–8. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102005000100001

Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30, 859–879. doi:10.1016/

Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: Investigating the English translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work & Stress, 19, 208–220. doi:10.1080/02678370500340728

Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling, concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 1−15). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

Huang, I., Chi-Hsun Jason Chuang, J. A., & Hao-Chieh Lin, J. A. (2003). The role of burnout in the relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and turnover intentions. Public Personnel Management, 32, 519−531.

Jordan, K., Fenwick, J., Slavin, V., Sidebotham, M., & Gamble, J. (2013). Level of burnout in a small population of Australian midwives. Women and Birth, 26, 125–132. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2013.01.002

Kalaj, V., Jelić, D., Berat, N., & Popov, B. (2011). What predicts positive and negative work-related stress indicators? Test of organizational health model. Primenjena psihologija, 4, 279−294.

Kalliath, T. J., O’Driscoll, M. P., Gillespie, D. F., & Bluedorn, A. C. (2000). A test of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in three samples of healthcare professionals. Work & Stress, 14, 35–50. doi:10.1080/026783700417212

Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44, 486−507.

Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, third edition. New York: The Guilford Press.

Kristensen, T. S., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K. B. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work & Stress, 19, 192–207. doi:10.1080/02678370500297720

Kristensen, T. S., Hannerz, H., Høgh, A., & Borg, V. (2005). The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire − a tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 31, 438–449. doi:10.5271/sjweh.948

Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1990). On the meaning of Maslach’s three dimensions of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 743–747. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.743

Leiter, M. (1991). The dream denied: Professional burnout and the constraints of human service organizations. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 32, 547–558. doi:10.1037/h0079040

Leiter, M. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1996). Consistency of the burnout construct across occupations. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 9, 229–243. doi:10.1080/10615809608249404

Maslach, C. (1976). Burnout. Human Behavior, 5(9), 16−22.

Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., & Leiter, M.P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397

Milfont, T. L., Denny, S., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., & Merry, S. (2008). Burnout and wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in New Zealand teachers. Social Indicators Research, 89, 169–177. doi:10.1007/s11205-007-9229-9

Moore, J. (2000). Why is this happening? A causal attribution approach to work exhaustion consequences. Academy Of Management Review, 25, 335−349. doi:10.5465/AMR.2000.3312920

Parker, P. A., & Kulik, J. A. (1995). Burnout, self- and supervisor-rated job performance, and absenteeism among nurses. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 581–599. doi:10.1007/BF01857897

Peng, J., Li, D., Zhang, Z., Tian, Y., Miao, D., Xiao, W., & Zhang, J. (2014). How can core self-evaluations influence job burnout? The key roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(1), 50–59. doi:10.1177/1359105314521478

Pines, A., & Aronson, E. (1988). Career burnout: Causes and cures. New York: Free Press.

Poghosyan, L., Aiken, L. H., & Sloane, D. M. (2009). Factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: An analysis of data from large scale cross-sectional surveys of nurses from eight countries. International journal of nursing studies, 46, 894–902. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.03.004

Popov, B. (2009). Short scale for measuring turnover intentions. Unpublished Manuscript.

Popov, B., & Popov, S. (2013). Adverse working conditions, job insecurity and occupational stress: The role of (ir)rational beliefs. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31, 27–38. doi:10.1007/s10942-012-0157-5

Popov, B., Miljanović, M., Stojaković, M., & Matanović, J. (2013). Izvori stresa na radu, distres i izgaranje: Uloga strategija prevladavanja Work stressors, distress, amd burnout: The role of coping strategies. Primenjena Psihologija, 6, 355–370.

Popov, B., Raković, S., & Jelić, D. (2016). Organisational health model: Predicting employee well-being and organisational performance. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Richardsen, A. M., & Martinussen, M. (2004). The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Factorial validity and consistency across occupational groups in Norway. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 377–384. doi:10.1348/0963179041752691

Schaufeli, W. B., & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Introduction to special issue on burnout and health. Psychology & Health, 16, 501–510. doi:10.1080/08870440108405523

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: Common ground and worlds apart. Work & Stress, 19, 256–262. doi:10.1080/02678370500385913

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893–917. doi:10.1002/job.595

Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Van Rhenen, W. (2008). Workaholism, burnout, and work engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well-being? Applied Psychology, 57, 173–203. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00285.x

Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis.

Schutte, N., Toppinen, S., Kalimo, R., & Schaufeli, W. (2000). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) across occupational groups and nations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 53–66. doi:10.1348/096317900166877

Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C. L. Cooper & I. Robertson (Eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 26−48). New York: Wiley.

Shirom, A. (2003). Job-related burnout: A review. In J.C. Quick & L.E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology (pp. 245−264). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 693–713. doi:10.1007/BF00929796

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon.

Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20, 316–334. doi:10.1080/02678370601065893

Tennant, C. (2001). Work-related stress and depressive disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 697–704. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00255-0

Terluin, B., Rhenen, W. V., Schaufeli, W. B., & De Haan, M. (2004). The four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ): Measuring distress and other mental health problems in a working population. Work & Stress, 18, 187–207. doi:10.1080/0267837042000297535

Tovilović, S., & Popov, B. (2009). New scale for measuring irrational and rational beliefs. Unpublished Manuscript.

Vanheule, S., Rosseel, Y., & Vlerick, P. (2007). The factorial validity and measurement invariance of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for human services. Stress and Health, 23, 87–91. doi:10.1002/smi.1124

Winwood, P. C., & Winefield, A. H. (2004). Comparing two measures of burnout among dentists in Australia. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 282–289. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.11.3.282

Worley, J. A., Vassar, M., Wheeler, D. L., & Barnes, L. L. B. (2008). Factor structure of scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A review and meta-analysis of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 797–823. doi:10.1177/0013164408315268

Yeh, W.-Y., Cheng, Y., Chen, C.-J., Hu, P.-Y., & Kristensen, T. S. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Copenhagen burnout inventory among employees in two companies in Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 126–133. doi:10.1007/BF03000183
07. 07. 2016.
Broj časopisa