ODNOS EKSPLICITNIH I IMPLICITNIH MERA STAVA PREMA HOMOSEKSUALNOSTI I VERBALNE PRODUKCIJE

  • Jovana Bjekić Institut za medicinska istraživanja, Univerzitet u Beogradu Odeljenje za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Marko Živanović Odeljenje za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Iris Žeželj Odeljenje za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu

Apstrakt

Veliki broj istraživanja pokazuje da eksplicitni i implicitni stavovi determinišu ponašanje. Verbalna produkcija, kao bihejvioralna manifestacija unutrašnjeg sveta osobe prema savremenim psiholingvističkim teorijama predstavlja, kako nameran, tako i automatski proces. Cilj ovog istraživanja bilo je ispitivanje odnosa između različitih mera verbalnog ponašanja u vezi sa homoseksualnošću, sa jedne, i implicitnih i eksplicitnih mera stava prema homoseksualnosti sa druge strane. U istraživanju je učestvovalo 105 ispitanika. Kao mere stava korišćeni su Test homofobije (H25) i Test Implicitnih Asocijacija, dok su mere verbalne produkcije ekstrahovane iz dve eksperimentalne situacije korišćenjem programa za automatsku analizu teksta LIWCser. U prvoj eksperimentalnoj situaciji ispitanici su indirektno usmeravani na stavski objekat (homoseksualnost), dok su u drugoj situaciji instruisani da direktno govore o stavskom objektu. Rezultati su pokazali umerenu povezanost između eksplicitnih i implicitnih mera stava, kao i relativno nisku do umerenu povezanost ovih mera sa pojedinačnim merama verbalne produkcije. Dodatno, pokazalo se da u osnovi verbalne produkcije stoje implicitni i eksplicitni procesi i to da su spontani aspekti verbalne produkcije pre svega vođeni implicitnim procesima, dok namerni aspekti verbalne produkcije predstavljaju manifestaciju eksplicitnih stavova. Dobijeni rezultati u skladu su sa postojećim modelima odnosa implicitnih i eksplicitnih mera stavova i ponašanja, kao i savremenim psiholingvističkim teorijama.

Reference

Ashburn-Nardo, L., Knowles, M. L., & Monteith, M. J. (2003). Black Americans’ implicit racial associations and their implications for intergroup judgment. Social Cognition, 21, 61−87. doi: 10.1177/1368430207081536

Banse, R., Seise, J., & Zerbes, N. (2001). Implicit attitudes toward homosexuality: Reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT. Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 145−160. doi: 10.1026/0949-3946.48.2.145

Bjekić, J., Lazarević, Lj. B., Erić, M., Stojimirović, E. i Đokić, T. (2012). Razvoj srpske verzije rečnika za automatsku analizu teksta (LIWCser). Psihološka istraživanja 15, 85−110.

Bjekić, J., Lazarević, Lj., Živanović, M., & Knežević, G. (2014). Empirical evaluation of Serbian dictionary for automatic text analysis (LIWCser). Psihologija 47, 5−32. doi: 10.2298/PSI1401005B

Carroll, D. W. (1999). Psychology of language (3rd ed.). New York: Brooks/Cole.

Cullen, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2008). Implicit pride and prejudice: A heterosexual phenomenon? In M. A. Morrison & T. G. Morrison (Eds), The Psychology of Modern Prejudice (pp. 1−47). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Dambrun, M., & Guimond, S. (2004). Implicit and explicit measures of prejudice and stereotyping: Do they assess the same underlying knowledge structure? European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 663−676. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.223

De Houwer, J. (2006). What are implicit measures and why are we using them. In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), The handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 11−28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. doi: 10.4135/9781412976237.n2

DeAndrea, D. C., Shaw, A. S., & Levine, T. R. (2010). Online language: The role of culture in self-expression and self-construal on Facebook. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(4), 425−442. doi: 10.1177/0261927X10377989

Deutsch, R., & Strack, F. (2006). Duality-models in social psychology: From opposing processes to interacting systems. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 166−172. doi: 10.1207/s15327965pli1703_2

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B., & Howard, A. (1997). On the nature of prejudice: Automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 510−540. doi: 10.1006/jesp.1997.1331.

Dunton, B. C., & Fazio, R. H. (1997). An individual difference measure of motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 316−326. doi: 10.1177/0146167297233009

Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297−327. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145225

Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1029−1046. doi: 10.1037/a0015141

Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B.A. (2008). Attitudinal dissociation: What does it mean? In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Briñol (Eds.), Attitudes: Insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 65–82). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17-41. doi: 10.1037/a0015575

Hart, R. P. (2001). Redeveloping DICTION: Theoretical considerations. In M. D. West (Ed.), Theory, method, and practice in computer content analysis (pp. 43−60). New York: Springer.

Herek, G. M. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(1), 19−22. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00051

Hicks, G. R., & Lee, T. (2006). Public attitudes toward gays and lesbians: Trends and predictors. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(2), 57−78. doi: 10.1300/J082v51n02_04

Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 357−372. doi: 10.1300/J082v05n04_02

Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D. A., Knobe, J., & Bloom, P. (2009). Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays. Emotion, 9, 435−439. doi: 10.1037/a0015960

Ireland, M. E., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2010). Language style matching in writing: Synchrony in essays, correspondence, and poetry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 549−571. doi: 10.1037/a0020386

Jellison, W. A., McConnell, A. R., & Gabriel, S. (2004). Implicit and explicit measures of sexual orientation attitudes: Ingroup preferences and related behaviors and beliefs among gay and straight man. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 629−642. doi: 10.1177/0146167203262076

Jurafsky, D., Ranganath, R., & McFarland, D. (2009). Extracting social meaning: Identifying interactional style in spoken conversation In Proceedings of NAACL HLT 2009 (pp. 638−646). doi: 10.3115/1620754.1620847

Lazarević, Lj. B. (2012). Relations between implicit and explicit measures of personality – prospects of Implicit Association Test (IAT) in assessment of basic personality traits (Neobjavljena doktorska disertacija). Filozofski fakultet, Beograd.

Lee, Y. (2009). Measures of student attitude on aging. Educational Gerontology, 35, 121−134. doi: 10.1080/03601270802523577

Logan, C. (1996). Homophobia? No, homopredjudice. Journal of Homosexuality, 31, 31−53. doi:10.1300/J082v31n03_03

Lyons, E. J., Mehl, M. R., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2006). Pro-anorexics and recovering anorexics differ in their linguistic Internet self-presentation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 60, 253−256. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.07.017

McConnell, A. R., & Leibold, J. M. (2001). Relations among the Implicit Association Test, discriminatory behavior, and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 435−442. doi: 10.1006/jesp.2000.1470.

Milham, J., San Miguel, S. L., & Kellogg, R. (1976). A Factor-analytic conceptualization of attitudes toward male and female homosexuals, Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 3−10. doi:10.1300/J082v02n01_01

Morrison, M. A., & Morrison, T. G. (2002). Development and validation of a scale measuring modern prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 15−37. doi: 10.1300/J082v43n02_02

Nosek, B. A. (2005). Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 565−584. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.134.4.565

Nosek, B. A. (2007). Implicit-explicit relations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 65−69. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00477.x

Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Sexuality IAT stimulus materials. Retrieved april, 2013, from http://implicit.harvard.edu.

Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit association test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 166–180. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271418

O’Hara, M., & Schober, M. F. (2004). Attitudes and comprehension of terms in opinion questions about euthanasia. Graduate Faculty Psychology Bulletin, 2(2), 11−29.

Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology (pp. 224−239). New York: Guilford Press.

Pennebaker, J. W., Chung, C. K., Ireland, M., Gonzales, A., & Booth, R. J. (2007). The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2007. Austin, TX.

Pennebaker, J. W., Mehl, M. R., & Niederhoffer, K. G. (2003). Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 547–577. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145041

Perugini, M. (2005). Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 29−45. doi:10.1348/014466604X23491

Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (1998). Internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 811−832. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.811

Raja, S., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: The Modern Homophobia Scale. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 3, 113−134. doi: 10.1023/A:1023244427281

Smith, K. T. (1971). Homophobia: A tentative personality profile. Psychological Reports, 29, 1091–1094. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1971.29.3f.1091

Steffens, M. C., & Wagner, C. (2004). Attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in Germany. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 137−149. doi:10.1080/00224490409552222

Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220−247. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_1

Tausczik, Y. R., & Pennebaker J. W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(1), 25−54. doi: 10.1177/0261927X09351676

Towles-Schwen, T., & Fazio, R. H. (2006). Automatically-activated racial attitudes as predictors of the success of interracial roommate relationships. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 698−705. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.11.003

Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101–126. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.107.1.101

Yang, A. S. (1997). The polls-trends: Attitudes toward homosexuality. Public Opinion Quarterly Autumn, 61, 477−507. doi: 10.1086/297810

Žeželj, I., Lazarević, Lj. i Pavlović, M. (2010). Test implicitnih asocijacija: teorijske i metodološke osnove. Psihologijske teme, 19, 45−69.

Živanović, M., Đokić, T., Lazarević, Lj. B., Orlić, A. i Bjekić, J.. (2014). Konstrukcija i empirijska provera testa homofobije. Primenjena psihologija, 7, 581−598. doi: 10.19090/pp.2014.4.581-598
Objavljeno
07. 07. 2016.
Broj časopisa
Sekcija
Članci