BASIC PERSONALITY TRAITS AS CORRELATES OF IMPLICIT PREJUDICE

  • Maša Pavlović Odeljenje za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu
  • Danka Purić Odeljenje za psihologiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu

Apstrakt

This study explores the relationship between “Big Five” personality dimensions and implicit prejudice towards two groups: (1) homosexuals and (2) elderly people. We employed the NEO PI-R personality inventory to register basic personality dimensions, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit prejudice, and a semantic differential and the Fraboni scale to assess explicit prejudice. Results of the correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that implicit prejudice toward homosexuals was related to Openness to Experience, while implicit ageism was related to Agreeableness. More precisely, people who obtained lower scores on these personality dimensions were more likely to hold implicit prejudice towards members of these stigmatized groups. We demonstrated that the relationship between personality and implicit prejudice could not be reduced to the relationship of personality traits with the explicit measures of prejudice. We compared these findings with the previously obtained pattern of results for explicit prejudice measures and discussed their implications for a  theoretical distinction between implicit and explicit prejudice constructs.

Reference

Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (1994). Implicit stereotyping and prejudice. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (Volume 7, pp. 55−76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Banaji, M. R., Lemm, K. M., & Carpenter, S. J. (2001). The social unconscious. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual Processes (pp. 134−158). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9780470998519.ch7

Bergh, R., Akrami, N., & Ekehammar, B. (2012). The personality underpinnings of explicit and implicit generalized prejudice. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 614−621. doi:10.1177/1948550611432937

Bjekić, J., Živanović, M. i Žeželj, I. (2012). Lingvistički korelati implicitnih stavova prema homoseksualnosti [Linguistic correlates of implicit attitudes toward homosexuality]. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Conference of the Serbian Psychological Association: Measurement and evaluation in psychology, Belgrade, Serbia.

Ćirović, I., & Pavlović, M. (2013). Intergeneration contact and prejudice toward elderly among children. Paper presented at the XIX Empirical Research in Psychology, Belgrade, Serbia.

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

Crites, S. L., Fabrigar, L. R., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Measuring the affective and cognitive properties of attitudes: Conceptual and methodological issues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(6), 619−634. doi:10.1177/0146167294206001

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62−68. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.62

Đurić-Jočić, D., Džamonja-Ignjatović, T., & Knežević, G. (2004). Neo PI-R: Primena i interpretacija [NEO PI-R: Application and interpretation]. Belgrade: The Center for Applied Psychology.

Duriez, B., & Soenens, B. (2006). Personality, identity styles and authoritarianism: An integrative study among late adolescents. European Journal of Personality, 20, 397−417. doi:10.1002/per.589

Ekehammar, B., & Akrami, N. (2003). The relation between personality and prejudice: A variable- and a person-centred. European Journal of Personality, 17, 449−464. doi:10.1002/per.494

Flynn, F. J. (2005). Having an open mind: The impact of openness to experience on interracial attitudes and impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 816−826. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.5.816

Fraboni, M., Saltstone, R., & Hughes, S. (1990). The Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA): An attempt at a more precise measure of ageism. Canadian Journal on Aging, 9(1), 56−66. doi:10.1017/S0714980800016093

Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692–731. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692

Greenwald, A. G, Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M.R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17−41. doi:10.1037/a0015575

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwender, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369−1385. doi:10.1177/0146167205275613

Klauer, K. C., & Mierke, J. (2005). Task-set inertia, attitude accessibility, and compatibility-order effects: New evidence for a task-set switching account of the Implicit Association Test effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(2), 208−217. doi:10.1177/0146167204271416

Knežević, G., Džamonja-Ignjatović, T., & Đurić-Jočić, D. (2004). Petofaktorski model ličnosti [Five-factor personality model]. Belgrade: The Center for Applied Psychology.

Neumann, R., Hulsenbeck, K., & Seibt, B. (2004). Attitudes toward people with AIDS and avoidance behavior: Automatic and reflective bases of behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 543−550. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2003.10.006

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., . . . Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18(1), 36−88. doi:10.1080/10463280701489053

Olson, M. (2010). Implicit prejudice. In J. Levine & M. Hogg (Eds.), Encyclopedia of group processes & intergroup relations. (pp. 436−440). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(2), 171−192. doi:10.1037/a0032734

Pavlović, M., & Ćirović, I. (2013). Implicit and explicit ageism in children, adolescents and young adults. Paper presented at 21nd Ramiro and Zoran Bujas’ Days, Zagreb, Croatia.

Pavlović, M., & Purić, D. (2015). Basic personality traits as predictors of attitudes toward stigmatized groups. Paper presented at the XXI Empirical Research in Psychology, Belgrade, Serbia.

Pearson, A. R., Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2009). The nature of contemporary prejudice: Insights from aversive racism. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 314−338. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00183.x

Project Implicit Research Group (2015). Race attitude. Retrieved from: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/background/raceinfo.html

Sibley, C. G., & Duckitt, J. (2008). Personality and prejudice: A meta-analysis and theoretical review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 248−279. doi:10.1177/1088868308319226

Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101−126. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.107.1.101
Objavljeno
07. 07. 2016.
Broj časopisa
Sekcija
Članci